Model Paper: 1
CBSE - XII
Q.1 Discuss the role of Saiyid Brothers. (5 Marks)
Ans. 1 The predominate role of Saiyid Brothers surfaced in the later
Mughal history at the end of the inglorious reign of Jahandar Shah in
1713. Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar who ruled in 1713 AD, owed his victory
to Saiyid Brothers, Abdullah Khan and Jusain Ali Khan Barahow. The duo
helped Farrukh Siyar to defeat Jahandar Shah and in return took up the
office of wazir and mir bakshi. The two brothers soon acquired dominant
control over the affairs of the state. Farrukh Siyar lacked the capacity
to rule but he was not in favor of the two brothers controlling the empire.
Thus, there ensued a prolonged struggle for power between the emperor
and the Brothers. In the end, in 1919, the Saiyid brothers deposed and
killed Farrukh Siyar .In his place they raised to the throne in quick
succession two young princes who died of consumption. The princes were
replaced by young Muhammad Shah, another puppet emperor under the control
of the brothers.
Thus, from 1713 until 1720, the Saiyid brothers wielded powers while the
real emperor having no control to rule. This gave them the title of being
Q 1 What were the causes and consequences of the Battle of Plassey?
Ans.The Battle Of Plassey was fought in 1757 A.D. The forces of English
East India Company defeated Siraj-ud-daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in a
battle on the field of Plassey,about 30 km from Murshidabad.
The Company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman
by the Mughal Emperor whereby they could export or import their goods
in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes or dastaks
for the movement of such goods. This farman was a perpetual source of
conflict between the Company and the Nawabs of Bengal.
Matters came to head when the quick-tempered Siraj -ud - daulah succeeded
the throne of Bengal. He demanded of English that they should trade on
the same basis as in the times of Murshid quli Khan. The English refused
to do so and instead started building fortification in Calcutta without
the permission of the Nawab. The battle of Plassey soon followed in 1757
in which the Nawab was defeated and British placed Mir Zafar ,a puppet
Nawab in Siraj-ud-daulah's place.
The Battle of Plassey resulted in consolidation of British mastery in
Bengal. This enhanced their prestige and enabled them to cherish their
future imperial designs in India. The revenues of Bengal helped them to
reorganize their army and meet the expenditure incurred in the subsequent
wars with the other states. It strengthened the British against French
resulting in the latter's final elimination from India.
Q.2 In which way Nadir Shah's Invasion exposed the hollowness of the
Mughal Empire? (4 Marks)
Ans. The obvious weakness of the Mughal Empire invited Nadir Shah's
descent upon the plains of northern India for plunder and spoil. For years
the defenses of the northwest frontier had been neglected. Nadir captured
Ghazni and Kabul, crossed the Indus at Attack (December 1738), and occupied
Lahore virtually unopposed. Hurried preparations were then made to defend
Delhi, but the faction-ridden nobles could not agree on a strategy. Nadir
defeated the Mughals at Karnal, took Emperor Muhammad Shah prisoner, and
marched to Delhi. The invader left Delhi in May laden with a booty estimated
at 70 crores (700 million rupees). His plunder included the famous Koh-i-noor
diamond and the jewel-studded Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan. He compelled
Muhammad Shah to cede to him the province of Kabul.
The Iranian invasion paralyzed Muhammad Shah and his court. The emperor
was compelled to appoint the Maratha peshwa,Balaji Baji Rao, as governor
of Malwa. The province of Katehar (Rohilkhand) was seized by an adventurer,
'Ali Muhammad Khan Ruhela, who could not be suppressed by the feeble government
of Delhi. The loss of Kabul opened the empire to the threat of invasions
from the northwest; a vital line of defense had disappeared. Punjab was
again invaded, this time by Ahmad Shah Abdali, an Afghan lieutenant of
Nadir Shah, who became king of Kabul after Nadir's death (June 1747);
Abdali sacked Lahore, and, even though a Delhi army compelled him to retreat,
his repeated invasions eventually devastated the empire.
Q 2 What was the Dual System of administration and what were its effects?
Ans.2 The main consequence of the Battle of Buxar in 1764 was that
it made the East India Company the real master of Bengal.
The sole control of the army and the supreme political power was in its
hands. The Nawab on the other hand depended for his internal and external
security on the British.
The Company had the right to directly collect the revenues, and control
the police and the judicial powers. This arrangement is known as the "Dual
System of Government". It had great advantage for the British. They
had all the power with them with no attached responsibility for the welfare
of the people of Bengal. On the other hand the Nawab and his officials
had the responsibility of administration but not the power to discharge
it. The logical consequence of this system was that neither the British
nor the Nawab cared for the welfare of the people.
The ill effects of this system were to be reflected in the fact that the
Company's servants had full freedom to oppress the people of Bengal. They
set out to amass personal fortunes and thereby drained Bengal of its wealth.
. In the years 1766,1767 and 1768, nearly 5.7 million pounds were drained
from Bengal. The abuses of this Dual System and the drain of wealth led
to the impoverishment of that province .
Q 3 What was the difference between the Subsidiary Alliance and the
Subsidiary Treaty? (2 Marks)
Ans.3 Under the Subsidiary Alliance system, the ruler of the allying
Indian State was compelled to accept the permanent stationing of a British
force within his territory. He was also to pay a subsidy for its maintenance.
This was allegedly, done for the protection of the Indian ruler. The "Subsidiary
Treaty" provided that the Indian ruler would agree to have a British
resident posted at his court, that he would not employ any European in
his service without the approval of the British; he would not negotiate
with any other Indian ruler without consulting the Governor-General. In
return, the British undertook to protect the ruler from his enemies and
also promised non-interference in the internal affairs of the allied state,
which in reality never happened.
Q 4 Write a brief note on the "Drain of Wealth". (2 Marks)
Ans.4 The commercial policy of the East India Company after 1813 was
guided by the needs of British Industry. It adopted a policy of free trade
or unrestricted entry of British goods. The main aim of the company was
Ansform India into a consumer of British manufactures and a supplier of
raw materials. Hence the 'Economic Drain' was peculiar to British rule,
which meant that the British drained India's wealth and resources for
which India got no adequate economic or material return.
Q.5 Which indirect methods did the British adopt for bringing the
Indian states under its control before 1857? (8 Marks)
Ans.5 .The British relied on two methods: the system of "Subsidiary
Alliances" and "Doctrine of Lapse" for bringing the Indian
states under their control before 1857.
Under the Subsidiary Alliance system, initiated by Lord Wellesley, the
ruler of the allying Indian state was compelled to keep a British force
permanently within the domains of his territory. He had to pay a subsidy
for its maintenance. All this was done for his protection as promised
by the English. However, in reality it was a way in which the Indian ruler
paid tribute to the company.
There were also instances when the ruler ceded part of his territory instead
of paying an annual tribute. In this reference the "Subsidiary Treaty"
played an important role. Here the Indian ruler was to agree to keep a
British resident posted at his court, that he would not agree to employ
any European in his service without the approval of the British, and that
he would not negotiate with any other Indian ruler without consulting
the Governor-General. In reality by signing the Subsidiary Alliance the
Indian ruler gave away his independence. Lord Wellesley signed subsidiary
treaties with the Nina of Hydria in 1798 and 1800.The Nawab of Awadh was
forced to sign a Subsidiary Treaty in 1801. He dealt with Mysore, Carnatic
, Tanjore and Surat even more sternly.
Another instrument through which the British annexed Indian states was
"Doctrine of Lapse". Its was initiated by Lord Dalhousie. Under
this doctrine, when the ruler of a protected state died without leaving
a natural heir, his state was not to pass to an adopted heir as sanctioned
by the age-old tradition. It was to pass on to the British Empire and
be part of it unless the adoption was cleared and approved by the British
authorities. States, which were annexed under this Doctrine, were Satara
in 1848, Nagpur and Jh
Ansi in 1854.
Q 5 What were the causes for the outbreak of the Revolt of 1857?
Ans.5 The revolt of 1857 was an epoch -making event of Indian history.
It was the first revolt of its kind, which threatened the British rule
in India .The revolt, did not take place suddenly. It should be understood
as an accumulated discontent among Indi
Ans in various parts of India due to various political, economic and social
The British East India Company destroyed Indian handicraft industry and
trade by imposing high tariff on the Indian Exports. On the other hand,
the imports of British goods were duty free. This disrupted both, the
industries as well as the trade. Britishers forced the peasantry to grow
indigo and other cash crops and sold them to British at very low price.
The princely states were discontented with Britishers who interfered in
their rule. Dalhousie's doctrine of lapse created bitter enemies for them
in form of Rani Jh
Ansi, Bahadur Shah , Nawab of Awadh . Another major cause of discontent
was the corrupt officials, Police; lower officials and courts were ill
reputed for corruption. The judicial system was inadequate. The British
government in India was unpopular being a foreign one. It lacked a clear
understanding of Indian governance.
The social reforms introduced by British, which included abolition of,
sat and child infanticide hurt the religious sentiments of the Indi
Ans. The Indian soldiers were discontented due to ill treatment meted
out to them by the Britishers. They could not rise higher than the rank
of subehdar. The greased cartiges used in the Enfield rifles by the soldiers
became the immediate cause of the revolt as it provided a spark to the
growing discontent of the masses.
Q.6 What were the effects of the Land Revenue policy of the British
Government? (5 Marks)
Ans.6 In 1765, the East India Company acquired the Diwani, or control
over the revenues, of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Warren Hastings auctioned
the right to collect revenue to highest bidders. But the experiment did
not succeed. It was at this stage that the idea first emerged of fixing
the land revenue at a permanent amount. Finally the Permanent Settlement
was introduced in Bengal and Bihar in 1783 by Lord Cornwallis, which forced
the landlords to deposit a fixed amount of money in the state treasury.
In return they were recognised as hereditary owners of the land. The landlord
thus extracted maximum labor from the peasant who was subjected to forced
labor. The permanent settlement policy had two special features. Firstly,
the Zamindars and revenue collectors were converted into landlords. They
became the owners of the entire land in their Zamindaris and collected
land revenues. On the other hand, the cultivators were reduced to the
low status of mere tenants and were deprived of long-standing rights to
the soil and other customary rights. The tenants of Bengal and Bihar were
left entirely at the mercy of the zamindars.
The Ryotwari System, which was introduced in south and Southwest India,
recognised the peasant as the direct owner of the land. The peasant, instead
of benefiting, suffered huge losses, as they had to part with half of
their produce in form of taxes. They had to pay taxes even on the failure
of the crops. The Government realized land revenue with severity.
The fixation of revenue was arbitrary. The attempt of the officials was
to secure the maximum amount. Between 1765-6 and 1793, land revenue demand
One of the major effects of the new land revenue policy was though the
Zamindars were landlords over the tenant, yet they themselves were subordinated
to the state. In fact they were reduced virtually to the status of a tenant
of the East India Company, paying 10/11th of his income from the land
as tax. Falling to pay the required land revenue the landlord could be
turned out of the land unceremoniously and his estate sold if he failed
to pay the revenue in time. The Government went on increasing land revenue
considerably but spent very little on the improvement of agriculture.
It auctioned the land of the peasant who was unable to pay rent due to
him. In order to escape such circumstances, the peasant himself pawned
or sold a part of his land to pay rent.
Q 6"The Indian Civil Service has been called the Steel Frame
which reared and sustained the British rule in India". Discuss (5
Ans.6 The pivotal position which the Indian Civil Service occupied
in the British scheme of things was underscored by Prime Minister Lloyd
George in a speech delivered in the House of Commons in 1922: ''They are
the steel frame of the whole structure. I do not care what you build on
it if you take the steel frame out, the fabric will collapse.
Lord Cornwallis brought the Civil Service into existence. Cornwallis,
who came to India as governor-general in 1786, was determined to purify
the administration by making it efficient and honest. He emphasised more
on elimination of corruption among the British officials, for which, the
salaries were increased. The same was not directed towards the Indian
officials .A special feature of the Indian Civil Service since the days
of Cornwallis was the rigid and complete exclusion of Indi
Ans from it. The Indian Civil Service gradually developed into one of
the most efficient and powerful Civil Services in the world. Its members
exercised vast power and often participated in the making of the policy.
They developed certain traditions of independence, integrity and hardwork,
though these qualities obviously served the British and not Indian interests.
They came to believe that they had an almost divine right to rule India.
Q.7 Describe the restrictions imposed on the press by the British.
Ans.7 7The chief instrument through which the nationalist-minded Indi
spread the message of patriotism and modern economic, social and political
ideas, and created an all-India consciousness was the press. The newspapers
criticized the official policies of the British Government. The British
Government thought that it is essential to curb the freedom of Indian
press otherwise it may be a major cause of their downfall.
The governor-general Lord Lytton (1877-1880) introduced the Vernacular
Press Act (1878) to impose restrictions on the freedom of Indian press.
This Act made restrictions on the vernacular press, which was responsible
for spread nationalist ideas in much of India. This Act armed the government
with uncontrolled power to make a wholesale censor in the newspapers in
vernacular languages and to confiscate the security deposit arbitrarily.
No newspaper in vernacular language could exist after it. The most invidious
aspect of the law was that though it put serious restrictions on the freedom
of Indian language newspapers yet it spared the English newspapers from
Discuss the policies followed by the British Government to foster
communalism and other forces of disunity. (5 Marks)
Ans.The Hindus and the Muslims had fought the revolt of 1857 but after
the suppression of the revolt, the British officials took vindictive attitude
towards the Muslims, hanging 27,000 Muslims in Delhi alone .The Muslims
were looked at with suspicion after the revolt. But this attitude of the
British changed after 1870's. To check the growth of a united national
feeling in the country, they decided to follow more actively the policy
of 'Divide and rule' and to divide the people on religious lines, in other
words to encourage communal and separatist tendencies in Indian politics
.They started instigating one section of the Indian people against the
other, one religion against the other and one race against the other.
For this purpose they came decided to come out as champions of Muslim
rights. The colonial government treated Hindus and Muslims as separate
communities now and encouraged the propagation of virulent communal ideas
and communal hatred through the press, pamphlets and public platform.
The British histori
Ans attacked the composite culture of India by propagating
that in medieval period, all Muslims were rulers and non-Muslims were
ruled. Due to British policy of divide and rule, modern education spread
relatively late among Muslim sections.
The Government Act of 1935 went a step forward in perpetuating the communal
cleavage between the Muslims and the non-Muslim communities, by prescribing
separate electorates on the basis of the 'communal award' .
The act of 1935, it should be noted, provided separate representation
not only for the Muslims, but for the Sikhs, the Europe
Ans, Indian Christi
Ans and thus created a serious hurdle in the way of the
building up of national unity, which the makers of the constitution found
it almost insurmountable to overcome even after the Muslims had partitioned
for a separate state.
Q 8 Discuss the main features of development of modern industries in
India. How did British rule hamper it?
Ans. 8 The Indian economy was based on handicraft industries and agriculture
before the Britishers came in India. Much of the production was based
on cottage and small-scale industries. The works of Indian goldsmiths,
blacksmiths, cotton weavers, silk weavers were in great demand not only
in India but also abroad. The 18th century witnessed the emergence of
industrial revolution in Britain. The industrial revolution created the
need for Indian raw material but it ruined the handicraft industry as
the British manufactured goods now flooded Indian markets at much lower
costs. On the other hand, the demand for the Indian handicraft was strategically
barred by imposing high tariff duties on Indian exports such as manufactured
silk and cotton cloth apparels.
The modern industries, which were opened in India, were controlled and
financed by the Britishers to cater to their own needs. India lacked heavy
industries such as metallurgy, machine, fertilisers etc. which made Indi
import it from Abroad. The government did not give any economic support
to the development of such industries.
In conclusion, industrial progress in India was exceedingly slow. In terms
of production as well as economic development, the modern industrial development
was paltry as compared to the developments of the other countries or for
that matter with India's economic needs. This was precisely because Britain
hampered its growth at each point of time, not providing enough opportunities
for growth, which if at all it happened was a stunted and lop-sided growth.
Discuss the main objectives of the Indian National Movement upto 1905?
Ans. By 1850's Indian nationalism had gathered enough strength
and momentum to appear as a major force on the Indian political scene.
This is evident from the fact that the British Indian Association was
formed in Bengal to represent Indian grievances to the British government
in 1851. In 1876, Surendranath Banerjea founded the Indian Association
in Bengal. But the Indian National Congress, founded in December 1885,
was the first organized expression of the Indian national movement on
an all-India scale.
It played an extremely significant role in the early stages of the growth
of the Indian nationalist movement of Indian politics helped to put the
nationalist movement on sound foundations. This phase of the movement
lasted till 1905.
Perhaps the most important part of the early nationalists' political work
was their economic critique of imperialism. They took note of all the
three forms of contemporary colonial economic exploitation, namely, through
trade, industry and finance. They clearly grasped that the essence of
British economic imperialism lay in the sub-ordination of the Indian economy
to the British economy. The early nationalists complained of India's growing
poverty and economic backwardness and the failure of modern industry and
agriculture to grow, and they put the blame on British economic exploitation
of India. The nationalists complained that India's wealth was being drained
to England, and demanded this drain be stopped. From 1885 to 1892 they
demanded the exp
Ansion and reform of the Legislative Council. The British
Government was forced by their agitation to pass the Indian Councils Act
Q 9 What was the role of Sayyid Ahmad Khan in modernizing the Muslim
community? (5 Marks)
Ans. 9 In 19th century, Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan emerged as the most outstanding
reformer among the Muslim population. Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan introduced
several reforms for the promotion of Muslims. He interpreted this holy
text in the light of intellectualism and science. He inspired the Muslims
to become liberal and free from social evils. He gave top priority to
western education. In 1875, he founded Muhammedan Anglo - Oriental School
at Aligarh which, in 1920, expanded, to become the Aligarh Muslim University.
Movements for religious reform were late in emerging among the Muslims.
The Muslim upper classes had tended to avoid contact with western education
and culture, and it was mainly after the Revolt of 1857 that modern ideas
of religious reform began to appear. Though the Muhammedan Literary Society
(1863) encouraged the upper and middle class Muslims to take to western
education but the most important reformer among the Muslims was Sayyid
Sayyid Ahmad Khan was a great believer in religious tolerance. He believed
that all religions had a certain underlying unity, which could be called
practical morality. Believing that a person's religion was his or her
private affair, he roundly condemned any sign of religious bigotry in
personal relations. Sayyid Ahmad's reformist zeal also embarrassed the
social sphere. He urged Muslims to give up medieval customs and ways of
thought and behaviour. In particular he wrote in favor of raising women's
status in society and advocated removal of purdah and spread of education
among women. He also condemned the customs of polygamy and easy divorce.
Q 9 Why was the attack on the caste system formed a major component of
the reform movements? (5 marks)
Ans.9 The caste system was a major target of attack for the social
reform movement. The Hindus at this time were divided into numerous castes.
The caste into which a man was born determined large areas of his life.
Moreover the castes were carefully graded into a hierarchy of status.
At the bottom of the ladder came the untouchables and the Schedule castes
that formed about 20 percent of the Hindu population. The untouchables
suffered from numerous severe and numerous disabilities and restrictions,
which varied from place to place.
In modern times caste became a major obstacle in the growth of a united
national feeling and the spread of democracy. British rule released many
forces that undermined the caste system like the equality before law,
modern industries, and new modes of tr
Ansport and communication, which
made the beginning for diluting the rigidities of the caste distinctions.
Logically, the impact of these developments instilled spirit rationalistic
and democratic beliefs in the Indian social reformers and they started
a tirade against the caste system. Such reform movements were the Brahmo
Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj, the Arya Samaj, the Ramakrishna Mission, the
Theosophists, and the Social Conference etc., who attacked the caste system
Q 10 Describe the significance of the Lahore Session of the Congress
in the history of the Indian National Movement. (5 Marks)
Ans. 10 The Lahore Session of the Congress gave voice to the new,
militant spirit. The first step was to reconcile the militant left wing
of the Congress. Jawaharlal Nehru was made the President of the Congress
at the historic session at Lahore in 1929. It passed a resolution declaring
Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence) to be the Congress objective. On
December 31,1929 the newly adopted tri-colour flag of freedom was hoisted.26
January 1930 was fixed as the first Independence Day, which was to be
so celebrated every year.
The Congress session also announced the launching of the Civil Disobedience
Movement. However, it did not draw up a plan of action. This was left
to Gandhiji. The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched on March 12,1930.
Once again he came in direct confrontation with the Government. He began
to consolidate the Nationalist ranks. The country was again filled with
hope and determined to be free.
Q 10 Discuss the Congress attitude to the Second World War.
Ans. 10 The Second World War broke out in September 1939. The
Government of India immediately joined the war without consulting the
National Congress or the elected members of the central legislature.
The National Congress was in full sympathy with the victims of Fascist
aggression. It was willing to help the forces of democracy in their struggle
against fascism. However, the point which the Congress leaders raised
was that how could an enslaved nation help other country in their fight
for freedom? If at all this was to be done, then India must be declared
free or alternately effective power be put in Indian hands before it could
actively participate in the war. These points, which were raised, were
in direct contradiction with the motives of the colonial rule. The British
Government refused to accept this demand and tried to pit the religious
minorities and Princes against the Congress. The Congress, therefore,
asked its ministries to resign.
Q 11 Discuss the reasons for the split in the Congress in 1907.
Ans. The agitation against the partition of Bengal had a deep impact
on the Indian National Congress. Also there was much public debate and
disagreement between the moderate and the militant nationalists. The militant
nationalists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and Boycott movement from Bengal
to the rest of the country. They also wanted to extend the Boycott movement
to every form of association with the colonial government. The Moderates
wanted to confine the Boycott movement to Bengal and even there they wanted
to limit it to the boycott of foreign goods.
There was a tussle between the moderates and the militant nationalists
for the presidentship of the Congress in the year 1906. However, Dadabhai
Naoroji was chosen the President .The differences could not be kept in
check for a very long time.
The moderate nationalists lacked a vision for the future. They were not
able to see that their methods, which were serving a real purpose earlier,
were no longer adequate. The Indian National Movement had advanced to
a new stage and the moderates could not keep pace with it. The militant
nationalists were on the other hand not prepared to take a step backwards
.The split between the two became imminent and was formalised in the Surat
session of the Indian National Congress in December 1907, whereby the
moderates captured the machinery and weeded the extremist elements out
of the Congress.
Q.11. How did the British policies led to the ruin of the artis
Ans. 11 The Indian economy was based on handicraft industries
and agriculture before the Britishers came in India. Much of the production
was based on cottage and small-scale industries. The works of Indian goldsmiths,
blacksmiths, cotton weavers, silk weavers were in great demanding not
only in India but also abroad .The 18th century witnessed the emergence
of industrial revolution in Britain. The industrial revolution created
the need for Indian raw material but it ruined the handicraft industry
as the British manufactured goods now flooded Indian markets at much lower
costs. This was done through the one- way free trade strategy of British
in 1813which allowed the invasion of British manufactures in India, in
particular cotton textiles.
The Indian goods made with primitive technique s could not compete with
goods produced on mass scale by powerful steam -operated machines. The
demand for the Indian handicraft was strategically barred by imposing
high tariff duties on Indian exports such as manufactured silk and cotton
cloth apparels The ruin of Indian Industries, particularly rural handicrafts,
proceeded more rapidly once the railways was built .The railways enabled
British manufactures to reach and uproot the traditional industries in
the remotest villages of the country at far more cheaper prices and attractive
colours .The cotton weaving and spinning industry were the worst hit.
Silk and woollen textiles fared no better and similar fate overtook the
iron, pottery, glass, paper, metal, guns, shipping, tanning and dyeing
Q.12. On an outline Map of India mark any five Indian states which
were annexed under the "Doctrine of Lapse"? (6 Marks)
Ans.12 Five indian states, which were annexed under the Doctrine of
Sambhalpur , Satara, Nagpur, Jh
On an outline Map of India mark the following under mentioned where the
important events took place.
a. First Congress Session-Bombay
b. First Congress Split-Lucknow
c. Home Rule Movement of Mrs Annie Besant-Madras
d. Commencement of The Revolt of 1857-Meerut
e. Formation of Brahmo Samaj-Calcutta