ICSE Set Qa1 Year Icse Social2000 Qa1.php History Exam Paper for students online

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History, Civics and Geography - 2000 (I.C.S.E)
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PART - I (Civics)

Q1.(a) What is the normal term of the Lok Sabha? (1)
Ans. The Lok Sabha is normally elected for a term of five years.

Q1. (b) How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha elected? (1 )
Ans. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker from amongst its members in the first sitting itself. The man gets the majority of votes is elected as a Speaker.

Q1. (c) What is the procedure adopted for resolving a deadlock between the two Houses of Parliament with regard to an ordinary Bill? (1 )
Ans. In case there is a deadlock between the two Houses of Parliament with regard to an ordinary bill, the President may summon a joint sitting of the two Houses. Such a joint session is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. As the membership of the Lok Sabha is more than double the membership of the Rajya Sabha, it is the will of the Lok Sabha that prevails.

Q1.(d) What is the Constitutional provision with regard to the representation of the Anglo Indian Community in the Lok Sabha? (1 )
Ans. Article 331 of the Constitution provides that not more than 2 members of the Anglo Indian Community can be nominated by the President in the Lok Sabha if in his opinion this community is not adequately represented in the House of people.

Q1.(e) When can Ordinances be issued by the President? (1 )
Ans. According to Article 123 of the Constitution, the President can issue an ordinance only when both the houses of the Parliament are not in session and the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immidiate action. The ordinance so promulgated should be laid before both houses of Parliament when they reassemble.

Q1. (f) By whom and on whose advice are the Ministers in a state appointed? (1 )
Ans. The Ministers in a state are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister who in turn is also appointed by the Governnor.

Q1. (g) Mention two ways by which the Constitution ensures independence of the judges of the Supreme Court. (1)
Ans. To save the camp of justice from dying out, it is essential that judiciary must be independent. This is ensured by the constitution through the following provisions:-
(i) To ensure that the judges remain honest and impartial, their salaries are fixed at a high level.

(ii) The removal of the judges from office through impeachment is purposely made difficult to inhibit the executive from taking undue advantage.

Q1 (h) Give two advantages of the system of Local self-Government. (2)
Ans. Local self-governments plays a very important role in the body-politic of the country.

(i) It is the local people who can best know their own problems which are often peculiar to the areas concerned. These problems are easily and more efficiently solved by the local self-governments of the places concerned.

(ii) The local bring the people and administration close to each other. Such a contact is very vital for the success of democracy.


Modern Indian History And The National Movement

Q2 (a) When and by whom was the Ramakrishna Mission founded? (1)
Ans. In 1896, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission to carry on humanitarian relief and social work and to spread the teachings of his teacher Ramakrishna Parmahansa.

Q2 (b) Mention two evils against which the Arya Samaj raised its voice. (1)
Ans. Arya Samaj, founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati raised its voice against the following evils:-
(i) Idolatry, rituals and priesthood and the false teachings of Puranas.
(ii) Caste system and untouchability.

Q2 (c) Name two leaders of the 'Moderates'. (2)
Ans. Dada Bhai Naoroji and Surendra Nath Banerjee may be called the moderates.

Q2 (d) Who said "Swaraj is my birthright and I will have it"? (1)
Ans. It was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, an extremist leader who declared that "Swaraj is my birthright and I will have it."

Q2 (e) Who started the paper "The Young India". Why? (2)
Ans. Lala Lajpat Rai started the nespaper called "The Young India". Through his writings he preached radical nationalism, inspired the Indian youth and kindled the fire of patriotism in them.

Q2 (f) When was the decision regarding the Partition of Bengal officially announced? (1)
Ans. The decision regarding the Partition of Bengal was officially announced in 1905.

Q2 (g) Mention one reason why 1916 is considered very important in the history of the Indian National Congress? (1)
Ans. The year 1916 is of historic importance for the Indian National Congress because the famous Lucknow Pact was signed in this year whereby the Congress and Muslim League united as also the Extremists and the Moderates. It was a marvellous step in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity. Moreover, the unity between the Extremists, the moderates and the league could now impress upon the government the urgency of their demands.

Q2 (h) What is stated about the Princely states in the Indian Independence Act of 1947? (1)
Ans. The Indian Independence Act of 1947 laid down that the princely states would have the choice to join either of the Dominions (of India or Pakistan) or to retain their independence.

The United Nations And The Regional Organisations

Q3 (a) Mention any two aims of the United Nations Organisation. (2)
Ans. The aims and purposes of the U.N.O. include:-
(i) To maintain international peace and security and to develop friendly relations among nations.

(ii) To achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.

Q3 (b) Mention the countries that are Permanent members of the Security Council in the U.N. (2)
Ans. The USA, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China are the fice permanent members of the Security Council.

Q3 (c) Who is a specialized UN agency devoted to a specific cause. What is this cause? (1)
Ans. The main aim of WHO is to improve the health of the people in all countries of the world.

Q3 (d) Give the expanded form of UNESCO. (1)
Ans. UNESCO stand for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.

Q3 (e) Name the principal judicial organ of the U.N. (1)
Ans. Internation Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the UN.

Q3 (f) Name any two objectives of ASEAN. (1)
Ans. ASEAN is a regional organisation of the South East Asian countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Thailand established in 1967. Brunei joined it in 1984. Its objectives include:-
(i) To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of the South East-Asian nations.

(ii) To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the UN Charter.

Q3 (g) The SAARC countries agreed to the establishment of SAPTA. Give the expanded form of SAPTA. (1)
Ans. SAPTA stands for South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement.

Q3 (h) What is meant by the Non-Aligned Movement? (1)
Ans. The refusal of the newly independent Asian and African nations after the Second World War, to join any of the power blocs and their determination to follow an independent foreign policy, led to the coming together of these nations and starting a non-aligned movement. Non-alignment, in the positive sense means freedom to decide the course of action that a country wishes to adopt in relation to world politics. In the negative sense, non-alignment implies keeping away from permanent alliances with the main actors participating in the Cold War.

PART - II

Section - A (Civics)

Q4. With reference to the Rajya Sabha, answer the following questions:
(a) What are the qualifications necessary to become a member of the Rajya Sabha? (4)
Ans. In order to be chosen as a member of the Rajya Sabha, a person
(a) He/she must be a citizen of India
(b) He/she must be not less than 30 years of age.
(c) He /she must possess such additional qualifications as may be prescribed by law from time to time (under Article 84 of the constitution)
(d) He/she should not hold any office of profit under the government of India or any state except that of a minister for the Union or for the state.
(e) He/she should not be of an unsound mind.
(f) He/she should not be an undischarged insolvent
(g) He/she should not have voluntarily acquired citizenship of a foreign state and should not be under acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foregin power.
(h) He/she should not be disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament (Art. 102)

4(b) Describe the Legislative and Financial powers of the Rajya Sabha. (6)
Ans.
Legislative Powers Of The Rajya Sabha:
All bills, other than Money bills, can originate in the Rajya Sabha. No bill can become a law unless agreed to by both the houses. After being passed by one house, it goes to the other house for its assent. In case of disagreement, the President may summon both the houses in a joint meeting. At the joint sitting questions are decided by a majority of the members of both houses present and voting. If the upper house does not pass an ordinary bill within six months, even then a joint sitting may be summoned. The bill is generally passed in favour of the Lok Sabha because the membership of the Lok Sabha is nearly double the strength of Rajya Sabha. Thus Rajya Sabha cannot reject the bill for ever. It can at the most delay the passage of legislation for six months.

Financial Powers Of Rajya Sabha:
The position of Rajya Sabha in respect of money bills is definitely inferior to that of the Lok Sabha. A money bill can originate in the Lok Sabha only. After a money bill has been passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations which it must make within 14 days. If it fails to do so, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. If it makes recommendations, the Lok Sabha is free to accept or reject them as it pleases. Thus, in financial matters the Lak Sabha is supreme; the Rajya Sabha has only an advisory role.

Q5. The Governor has been described as a nominal head of the state. He can still exercise his authority and act independently. In this context describe:
(a) his judicial powers. (4)
Ans. The Governor determines the question of appointments, postings and promotions of district judges and other judicial officers in the state. The President consults the Governor for making appointments of judges of the High Court. He also appoints the attorney General of the state. The Governor also has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends. He can also grant amnesty.

(b) His discretionary power (6)
Ans. Article 163 of the constitution makes the Governor sole judge in matters in which he is required to act in his discretion and validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.

Besides this, there are other articles too such as:-
1. Article 166(3) which states that the Governor can make rules of business except in cases where he can act in his discretion,

2. Article 200, which says that the Governor can reserve a bill for the consideration of the President.

3. Article 356 (1) ,which provides that the Governor can make a report about the failure of the constitutional machinery in the state.

4. Article 239 (2) which gives him certain functions when appointed to be Administrator of a, union territory.

5. Article 239 (2), which bestows on him the power to make rules.

6. Besides, the Governor has certain special responsibilities to discharge according to the directives issued by the President under Articles 371 (2), 371 A(1), 371(c) etc. He does not have to consult the Chief Minister or his council of ministers in this context.

7. Circumstances can arise when no party commands an absolute majority in the house. In such a case the Governor will have to exercise his personal judgement in selecting the Chief Minister.

8. If the Ministry has lost the confidence of the Legislative Assembly, it must resign. But a situation may arise that the Ministry insists on remaining in office and asks for the dissolution of the house on the plea that the house has lost the confidence of the people. In such circumstances the Governor will be within his right not to accept the advice of the Chief Minister to dissolve the Assembly.

However the authority of the Governor even in the discretionary field is not unrestrained. If it is misused, either as a result of personal ambitions or as partisan in the currents and cross-currents of state politics, the President can always check him; if necessary, he may even remove him.

Q6. With reference to urban local governments, explain:
(a) the composition of a Municipality (5)

(b) the functions of a Municipality. (5)
Ans. A Municipal Council/Municipality is a statutory body created by an Act of the state legislature and the criteria for setting it up vary from state to state. Broadly these are: population, size, sources of income, industrial / commercial future and prospects of the city. The size of a municipality is determined by the state government, but the minimum number of councillors should be five. The size increases with the increase in population. Their tenure, under the Constitution 74th Amendment Act, 1992, is five years.

A municipal council consists of elected, co-opted and associate members. For the elected seats, elections are held on the basis of adult suffrage and secret ballot and for which purpose, the city is divided into wards, seats are reserved for SC/ST, women and backward classes. Some seats may be filled by nominations of persons having special knowledge or experience of municipal administration, but such members would not enjoy any voting right. Besides the members of Parliament and of state legislature will also be voting members in a municipality. In order to lessen the workload of the council, several sub-committees are set up.

The municipal council elects, from amongst its members, a President for a period of five years. The council also elects one or two Vice-Presidents. The state government also appoints an Executive Officer in the municipal council for the conduct of general administrative work.

(b) the functions of a Municipality. (5)
Ans. The 74th Constitution Amendment lays down that municipalities would go beyond the mere provisions of civic amenities. Now, they are expected to play a crucial role in the formulation of plans for local development and the implementation of development projects and programmes, including those specially designed for urban poverty alleviation. The list of functions that has been laid down in the Twelfth Schedule is as follows:

1) Urban planning, including town planning.
2) Regulation of land use and construction of buildings.
3) Planning for economic and social development
4) Roads and bridges
5) Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial puposes.
6) Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management.
7) Fire services
8) Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects
9) Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and the mentally retarded.
10) Slum improvement and upgradation
11) Urban poverty alleviation.
12) Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds.
13) Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
14) Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and electric crematoriums.
15) Cattle ponds; prevention of cruelt to animals.
16) Vital statistics including registation of birth and deaths.
17) Public amenities, including street lighting, parking lots, but-stops and public conveniences.
18) Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

Section B
Modern Indian History


Q7. Raja Ram Mohan Roy raised the people from their deep slumber. In this context describe his efforts in the following fields:
(a) Social reforms (5)
Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was called "the first modern man" in India for his progressive thinking and social reforms. He was moved by deep love for his people and country and worked hard all his life for their social, religious, intellectual and political regeneration.

In 1814 he formed the Atmiya Sabha and carried on a persistent struggle against the religious social evils which were widely prevalent among the Hindus in Bengal. He therefore, opposed the worship of idols, the rigidity of caste, and the prevalence of meaningless religious rituals. He condemned the priestly class for encouraging these practices.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a man of action. His greatest contribution was his lifelong crusade against the evil practice of sati. Beginning in 1818 he set out to rouse public opinion on the question. By citing the authority of the oldest sacred books he showed that the Hindu religion at its best was opposed to the practice; on the other hand, he appealed to the reason and humanity and compassion of the people. He visited the burning ghats at Calcutta to try to persuade the relatives of widows to give up their plan of self-immolation. He organised groups of like minded people to keep a strict check on such performances and to prevent any attempt to force the widows to become sati. Finally, Sati was abolished by the govt. in 1829.

He was also a stout champion of women's rights. He condemned the subjugation of women and opposed the prevailing idea that women were inferior to men in intellect or in a moral sense. He attacked polygamy and the degraded state to which widows were often reduced. To raise the status of women he demanded that they be given the right of inheritance and property.

(b) Spread of Western Education in India. (5)
Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy believed that India could progress only through western education. He put forward the idea that new India, guided by reason, should acquire and treasure all that was best in the East and the West. Thus he wanted India to learn from the west but this learning was to be an intellectual and creative process through which Indian culture and thought were to be renovated; it was not to be an imposition of western culture on India.

Thus, he encouraged western education and supported Lord Macaulay's idea of introducing English as the medium of instruction in higher learning. In 1817, David Hare founded the famous Hindu College Rammohan Roy gave most enthusiastic assistance to Hare in this and his other educational projects. In addition, he maintained at his own cost an English school in Calcutta from 1817 in which, among other subjects, mechanics and the philosophy of Voltaire were taught. In 1825, he established a Vedanta college in which courses both in Indian learning and in western social and physical sciences were offered.

Q8. The men who dominated the Congress from 1885 to 1905 were liberal in their views and outlook. In this context describe:
(a) the reasons for their being called the 'Moderates'. (3)

Ans. The term moderates is a relative term with reference to the extremists. They believed in loyalty to the British crown. They considered their connection with Britain as a boon for it had removed various defects from the Indian society and culture. They had full faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They relied on solemn pledges given by the British government to the people of India. The methods adopted by them were not violent but constitutional in nature. Their agitation was carried out through news- papers, pamphlets, public meetings etc. They also drafted memorandum and petitions and submitted them to the government.

The goals of the moderates were themselves moderate. They did not aim for what seemed to be impossible things like independence. Initially they asked for a good government and later on shifted their demands to responsible and representative govt. within the British rule.

(b) the methods adopted by them. (4)
Ans. The purpose of the agitation carried out by the moderates was to suggest improvements which could be adopted by the authorities. They did not want the British rule to end but wanted to liberalise that rule. They believed that their main task was to educate the people, to arouse national consciousness and to create a united public opinion on political questions. For securing concessions from the rulers they carried out agitation through political platforms, newspapers, public meetings, pamphleteering and political propaganda. The Congress Organised meetings in towns, sent lectures to the countryside and circulated numerous leaflets and pamphlets. They drafted petitions and memorandum and submitted them to the government. According to them, the British govt. did not understand the Indian problems and thus failed to mete out justice. To influence the British govt. and to enlighten the British public and political leaders, the moderates sent deputation of leading Indian leaders to England Regular meetings and lectures were organised by the moderates in different parts of England. Dadabhai Naoroji spent a major part of his life in England for this purpose. But they strictly stuck to constitutional means i.e. avoided rebellion, aiding or abetting a foreign invasion or resort to crime.

(c) the attitude of the British towards the moderates. (3)
Ans. In the beginning the government adopted favourable attitude towards the congress and viewed the Congress leaders as a friendly tribe. The govt. wanted to use it as 'a safety valve' to ease out discontent among the Indian people. Mr. A.O. Hume was encouraged by viceroy Lord Dufferin to set up the Indian National Congress.

But this friendly attitude did not last long because the Congress leaders became critical of government policies and leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji exposed the process of 'economic drain' of India. In 1887, Lord Dufferin criticised the Congress as representing a microscopic minority and declared Congress a 'seditious body'. The British officials began to criticise the Congress Leaders publicly and branded them as "disloyal Babus", "Seditious Brahmins" and "Violent villains". In 1898, Lord Elgin threatened the Indians saying, "India was conquered by the sword and by the sword it shall be held."

Realising that the growing unity of Indians would pose a threat to the British government, officials started obstructing the smooth functioning of the Congress. Indian government employees were prohibited from attending the Congress sessions. The government also started the policy of 'divide and rule' to wean away Muslims from the activities of the Indian National Congress. In 1900, Lord Curzon announced to the Secretary of state that "The Congress is tottering to its fall and one of my great ambitions, while in India, is to assist it to a peaceful demise." But the Congress did not 'totter to its fall". On the contrary, it became more aggressive heralding a new phase of the Indian National Movement.

Q9. The British policy of 'divide and rule' gave rise to the formation of the Muslim League. In this context state: a) the British policy of 'divide and rule'. (3)
Ans. The hatred between the Hindus and the Muslims was engendered by the British as a political device. The British realised that the limited number of British officials would be no match to the overwhelming strength of united Indians. So they started giving preferential treatment to one community and showed indifference to the other to sow discord among them.

For a few years after the Revolt of 1857, the British discriminated against the Muslims holding them responsible for the revolt. Muslims were kept out of services and the army. Hindus led by the loyalists were favoured. But as the National Movement grew stronger, the British became apprehensive lest the Indians pooled their strength together to destabilise the government. They now began to foment ill feeling between Hindus and Muslims, highlighting their differences. They presented the Muslim rulers as plunderers and tyrannical bigots to create hatred for them among the Hindus. Similarly, they painted several Hindu rulers as cruel to their Muslim subjects. They branded the Congress as a Hindu movement, and encouraged the upper class Muslims to start their own organisation.

(b) the objectives of the Muslim League. (4)
Ans. The objectives of the League were defined as follows:
(i) To promote among the Muslims of India a feeling of loyalty to the British government and to remove any misconceptions regarding the intention of the government with regard to any of its members.

(ii) To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government.

(iii)To prevent the rise of feelings of hostility among the Muslims of India towards other communities.

The Muslim League provided a political platform to the Muslim Community. Though they claimed to represent majority of the Muslims, the Congress still enlisted the support of a large number of Muslims. While the Congress was leading a secular movement against one common enemy, the British, the Muslim League throughout remained loyal to the British and fought for communal interests. The formation of the Muslim League was thus a victory of the divide and rule policy.

(c) two direct outcomes of the formation of the Muslim League. (3)
Ans. The formation of Muslim League weakened the nationalist sentiments as the League leaders advised the Muslims to shun the nationalist movement and asserted that it was only by supporting the British policies that the Muslims could get concessions from them. The interests of Hindus and Muslims were also viewed as different by them.

Moreover, the coming up of a separate Muslim organisation, hailed the victory of the 'divide and rule' policy of the British. To step up their efforts to divide the national movement further, Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 were introduced which provided for separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims. The feelings of separateness were further strengthened in the minds of the two communities and it finally led to the partition of the country.

Section - C
The National Movement 1915 - 1947


Q10. The resolution to launch the Non-cooperation movement was adopted at the Nagpur Session of the Indian National Congress, 1920. In this context explain:
a) What is meant by the 'Non-cooperation Movement'? Give one example.

Ans. Distressed by the Khilafat agitation, the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy and fully aware of the fact that Indians were not in a position to carry out a full scale armed struggle against the British, Gandhi, upholding his ideal of non-violence gave a call for a Non-cooperation Movement, Non-Cooperation means withdrawal of all support and co-operation and its target was the British Government. Its only object was to render the government crippled and paralysed, to create such problems for the administration that would make it realise that it could not work or survive without the willing co-operation of the Indian people.

The non-cooperation movement had both a positive and a negative aspect. The negative aspect included with its ambit the surrender of titles and honours, boycott of government affiliated school and colleges, law courts, foreign cloth and could be extended to include resignation from government services and mass civil disobedience including the non-payment of taxes. The positive aspect includes the setting up of national school and colleges, Panchayats for setting disputes and encouragement of hand-spinning and weaving. The people were asked to maintain Hindu-Muslim unity, give up untouchability and observe strict non-violence.

(b) What was the impact of the Non-cooperation movement on the National Movement? (6)
Ans. Though the Non-cooperation movement could not achieve its immediate goals, it cannot be termed as a total failure. It ushered in a new era in the political life of the country and imparted a revolutionary character to the national movement. It demonstrated that it commanded the support and sympathy of vast sections of the Indian people. The spread of the movement was also Nation-wide. Some areas were more active than others, but there were few that showed no signs of activity at all. This was the first time that nationalists from the towns, students from schools and colleges, or even the educated and politically aware in the villages had made a serious attempt to bring the ideology and the movement into their midst. Large number of women participated in the national struggle. Thus, the national struggle, which hitherto was an arena for educated politicians, now became an all India movement.

The tremendous participation of muslims in the movement and the maintenance of communal unity, was in itself no mean achievement satyagrah and non-violent non-cooperation adopted by the Congress were unique and the mighty British empire had no weapons to cope with it. There was also an increasing recognition of social evils like untouchability and drinking. The emphasis on Khadi was a realistic assessment of rural needs. This was also an indirect blow to the stability of the empire and at the same time strengthened the Indian social structure. Out of the experience of this attempt to defy openly the foreign rulers and the government they had set up, was born a new sense of self-confidence and self-esteem which wiped out the humiliation of retreat. Gandhi knew that herein lay the strength of his satyagrah.

Q11. The 'Quit India Movement' launched by the Congress was the last mass uprising against British rule in India. In this context state:
(a) three reasons for launching the Movement (6)
Ans. The Quit India Movement was the last in the series of mass movements launched by Gandhi under the aegis of the Indian National Congress. Its causes can be listed as the following:-
(1) The World War II had started in September, 1939. The Congress Ministries resigned from their offices for India was dragged into the war without consulting them. They demanded complete independence for India. Moreover the August offer failed to satisfy the Indian leaders and hence Gandhi launched his individual satyagrah but this movement soon petered out. However, by 1942, the war came to India's doorsteps with the Japanese invasion of Rangoon. The only way to avert the Japanese attack on India was the withdrawal of British rule. The Indians, thus being anxious to save their country decided to launch a movement calling upon the British to quit India.

(2) The Cripps Mission's proposals did not satisfy the leaders. It did not promise independence after the war, not did it give any effective power to the Indians during the war. Gandhiji called the proposal a 'post-dated cheque in a fast failing bank'. The failure of Cripps Mission made it clear that the British were unwilling to offer an honourable settlement. Its empty gestures convinced even those Congressmen like Nehru and Gandhi, who did not want to do anything to hamper the anti-fascist war effort that any further silence would be suicidal.

(3) Moreover, popular discontent, a product of rising prices and war-time shortages, was gradually mounting. The popular willingness to give expression to this discontent was enhanced by the growing feeling of an imminent British collapse. The news of Allied reverses and British withdrawals from South-east Asia and Burnia confirmed this feeling. Therefore, there was a possibility that the British might leave India at the mercy of the dreaded Japanese in the event of the latter's attack. Therefore, the national leaders thought that it was necessary to launch a struggle to draw the Indian people out of their demoralised state of mind and convince them of their own power to build up their capacity to resist Japanese aggression.

(b) the British reaction to the movement. (2)
Ans. The British reaction to the movement was very brutal. Using the justification of the war effort, the govt. had armed itself with draconian measures and suppressed even the basic civil rights. Virtually any political activities, however peaceful and 'legal', was at this time an illegal and revolutionary activity. There was government firing and repression to counter the movement. Unarmed crowds faced police and military firing on many occasions and they were also machine gunned by low- flying aircraft. Repression also took the form of taking hostages from the villages, imposing collective fines, whipping of suspects and burning the entire village
whose inhabitants had run away and could not be caught. By the end of 1942, over 60,000 persons had been arrested. Martial law had not been proclaimed but the army did what it wanted to without any reference to the district officers. Censorship of press was also imposed. The brutal and all-out repression succeeded within a period of 6 or 7 weeks in bringing about a cessation of the mass phase of the struggle.

(c) the immediate results of the Movement. (2)
Ans. The movement was truly multi-dimensional, all embracing and broad-based, it cut across the barriers of caste, creed, community, religion, sex and produced a spontaneous mass upheaval engulfing the entire country. The class interests were blurred beyond recognition. It marked the climatic phase of the anti-imperialist struggle and the people of India as a whole came closer to each other and overcame class barriers, recognising the imperative need first and foremost to get rid of the colonial domination, forming a powerful united front.

The Quit India Movement placed the demand for independence on the immediate agenda of the national movement. After quit India, there could be no retreat. Any further negotiations with the British government could only be on the manner of the transfer of power. Independence was no longer a matter of bargain. And this became amply clear after the war.

Q12. Lord Mountbatten was convinced that the Partition of India was inevitable. In this context describe briefly:
(a) four of the salient features of the Mountbatten Plan. (6)

Ans. On 3 June 1947, Lord Mountbatten announced his plan. The salient features were:-
(1) Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain maximum unity. The country would be partitioned but so would Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would meet both the Congress and League's position to some extent. The League's position on Pakistan was conceded to the extent that it would be created, but the Congress position on unity would be taken into account to make Pakistan as small as possible. Whether it was ruling out independence for the princes or unity for Bengal or Hyderabad's joining up with Pakistan instead of India, Mountbatten firmly supported Congress on these issues.

(2) The Mountbatten Plan sought to effect an early transfer of power on the basis of Dominion status to two successor states, India and Pakistan. For Britain, Dominion Status offered a chance of keeping India in the commonwealth for India's economic strength and defence potential were deemed sounder and Britain had a greater value of trade and investment there.

(3) The rationale for the early date for transfer of power was securing Congress agreement to Dominion status. The additional benefit was that the British could escape responsibility for the rapidly deteriorating communal situation.

(4) A referendum was to be held in NWEP to ascertain whether the people in the area wanted to join India or not. The princely states would have the option of joining either of the two dominions or to remain independent. The Provinces of Assam, Punjab and Bengal were also to be divided. A boundary commission was to be set up to determine the boundaries of these states.

(b) the reasons for the acceptance of "Partition" by the Congress. (4)
Ans. By accepting the Mountbatten Plan/Partition, the Congress was only accepting what had become inevitable because of the long-term failure of the Congress to draw in the Muslim masses into the national movement and stem the surging waves of Muslim communalism, which, especially since 1937, had been beating with increasing fury.

The Congress leaders felt by June, 1947 that only an immediate transfer of power could forestall the spread of Direct Action and communal disturbances. Sardar Patel rightly said, "a united India even if it was smaller in size was better than a disorganised and troubled and weak bigger India."

Difficulties created by the obstructionist policies and tactics of the League proved to the Congress that the leaders of the Muslim League were concerned only with their own interests and the future of India would not be safe with them in the government. They would act as a stumbling block in the path of India's progress. The Congress leaders also felt that the continuance of British rule never was and never could be in the good interest of Indians. Sooner they quit, the better it would be.

Section - D
The United Nations And The Regional Organisations


Q.1 3. The aim of the United Nations is to safeguard the world from the scourge of war. In this context, describe briefly:
(a) the composition of the security council. (4)
Ans. Chapter 5 of the UN Charter deals with the organisation, role and functions of the Security Council. It lays down tat the Council would have 15 members: five permanent - China, France, Russia, UK & USA - and 10 non-permanent members. These non-permanent members are elected for two year terms by the General Assembly by a 2/3rd majority. The criteria for the election of the non-permanent members are equitable geographical distribution and contribution of the state towards the United Nations. The General Assembly adopted a resolution allotting the 10 elective seats as follows:- 5 for Africa and Asia, 2 for Latin America, 1 for Eastern Europe and 2 for Western Europe and other states.

Each member of the council has one vito. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great Power unanimity", often referred to as the "veto" power. All five permanent members have exercised the right of veto at one time or another.

(b) the functions of the General Assembly (6)
Ans. Article 10 of the Charter empowers the General Assembly to discuss any matter within the scope of the charter, including security questions and to make recommendations on them to member-states or the security council, unless the security council was 'exercising its functions' on that question. The Assembly has both the decision-making and recommendatory functions. The decision-making functions include the budgetary functions, elective functions, organisational matters and reforms and membership questions. However, most of General Assembly's authority is recommendatory in nature. It includes the following:-

(i) to consider and make recommendations on the principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments.

(ii) to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political co-operation, the development and codification of international law; the realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and international collaboration in economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields.

(iii) to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation, regardless of origin, which might impair friendly relations among nations.

(iv) to receive and consider reports from the security council and other United Nations organs.

(v) to consider and approve the United Nations budget and to apportion the contribution among members.

(vi) to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and social council and those members of the Trusteeship Council that are elected; to elect jointly with the security council the judges of the International Court of Justice and on the recommendation of the security council to appoint the Secretary General.

Under the "Uniting for peace" resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanent members, fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly is empowered to consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to members for collective measures, including, in the case of breach of the peace or act of aggression, the use of armed force when necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Q14. With reference to the Declaration of Human Rights, answer the following question:
(a) What does the term Human Rights mean? (1)
Ans. Human Rights are those rights which everyone should enjoy as human beings. These rights are fundamental to one's welfare. It protects and individual from being exploited. The basic idea behind human rights is that human beings should end all unjust discrimination. Human rights are of special significance to weaker sections such as women, children, the poor, prisoners, refugees, racially oppressed, aged and others.

(b) What do Article 1 and 2 of the Declaration of Human Rights State? (3)
Ans. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December, 1948.
Article 1 states - All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2 states - Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs whether it be independent, trust, non self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

(c) Give three reasons for the importance of Human Rights today. (3)
Ans. (i) Human Rights are essential for the well-being of the individual and vital for the weaker sections of society. Specially in development countries, where most of the people live below the poverty line, the protection of human rights becomes all the more necessary. Human rights at least ensure some amount of dignity and respect to the individual.

(ii) With the upcoming refugee problem, specially in the face of border disputes and unsettled territorial boundaries, the protection and enforcement of the human rights of these people becomes all the more important.

(iii) Women, specially in the developing countries are being harassed and are not given their basic human rights. It is important to protect this section of society for women are in no way inferior to men.

(d) What does the declaration of the Rights of the child affirm? (3)
Ans. The Declaration of the Rights of the child, adopted unanimously by the General Assembly in 1959, affirms the right of children to special protection and opportunities and facilities for healthy, normal development. These and other rights have been transformed into binding legal obligations through the adoption of the convention on the Rights of the child by the General Assembly on 20 November, 1989. By August 1992, 120 states had ratified or acceded to the Convention. A Committee on the Rights of the Child, established under the convention, meets regularly to monitor the progress made by states parties in fulfilling their obligations. The Committee is able to make suggestions and recommendations to Governments and to the General Assembly on ways in which the objectives of the convention may be met.

Q15. With regard to the European Community, answer the following questions:
(a) Name any four countries which were the original members of EC. (2)
Ans. The original members of EC are Belgium, France, Italy & Luxembourg.

(b) State briefly any four objectives of EC (4)
Ans. Economic integration and free trade has been the driving force behind the moves towards European Unity. The Treaties of the community define the basic aims of economic integration as:

(i) Freedom of movement of people, goods and capital. Thus individuals or companies from member states may establish themselves in another country for economic activity or sell goods or services there on the same basis as a national of the country. Restrictions on capital have been lifted and movement of people, goods and services have been freed from all barriers since 31 December, 1992. As a result the economy of the European
states has become integrated.

(ii) To have a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for increasing agricultural production and ensuring fair standard of living for the agricultural community, to stabilise markets, to assure supplies and to ensure reasonable price to consumers. It also aims to protect the market against price fluctuations through market intervention.

(iii) To protect European trade from international disturbance and to create a zone of monetary stability the European monetary system was set up in March 1979. Its aim was to check inflation and increase the growth of exports.

(iv) To encourage competition among member states provided it does not hamper the common interests of the EU. No country is allowed to raise artificial or national barriers to the free movement of goods and services.

(c) Mention two functions of the Council of Ministers of EC. (4)
Ans. The Council of Ministers of EC consists of foreign ministers of all member states and represents national interests in the European Union.
(1) It takes decisions on the proposals put forward by the European Commission. Important decisions like admission of new members require a unanimous decision of the Council.

(2) The Council coordinates the general economic policy, the council defines common positions and adopts joint actions. In the case of justice and home affairs, the council acts through joint actions and by drawing up conventions which it recommends to Member States for adoption.