CBSE Set Qa1 Political Science Sample Test Papers For Class 12th for students online

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Political Science Class- XII ( CBSE)
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Q 1. Mention any two sources of law. (2 marks)
Ans 1. Sources of law may include:-

(a) CUSTOMS - In every community the earliest form of law is traceable in the well established practices of the people. These practices developed because of the utility inherent in them. In due course a practice becomes a uage which after sufficient standing hardens into a custom. e.g. the common law of England consists mainly of customs accepted by courts of law.

(b) LEGISLATION - It means placing of a specific rule on the statute book of the land. It reflects the will of the state as determined by the law making organs. Due to the codification of law, uncertainities and ambiguities have been sufficiently narrowed down.

Q 2. What do you understand by Constitutional Law? (2 marks)
Ans 2. Constitutional Law includes all rules which directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of power in the state and which are enforced by the courts. Constitutional Law defines the organisation of the state, determines the functions exercised by different departments of government, and establishes the relationship between the rulers and the ruled. It may be either written or unwritten. It may be the result of the deliberate effort of
a body - like the Constituent Assembly or it may be the product of history and may consist of customs, usages and judicial decisions, as in Britain.

Q 3. What is the meaning of a welfare state? (2 marks)
Ans 3. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and services to weaker sections in society.
The aim of the welfare state is preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment, sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and unemployment benefits to all its citizens.

Q 4. What is the anarchist view of state activitiy? (2 marks)
Ans 4. Anarchism is the doctrine that political authority, in any of its forms, is unnecessary and undesirable. The state is regarded as the embodiment of force employed in the government of the community. Liberty is supreme in the Anarchist creed, but it is sought by abolishing the state and all its institutions exercising forcible control over the individuals. Proudhan was the author of the term anarchy. He was against the state, since it had evolved out of the system of private property & supported in equities in society.

Q 5. List any two political rights. (2 marks)
Ans 5. Political rights are possessed by those persons whom the state permits to share in the legal expression and administration of its sovereign power. Political rights consist in:-

(i) Right to vote :- This means that every adult citizen has the right to express his opinion by casting a vote at the time of election what persons he desires should undertake the task of government. The right to vote is the product of democracy.

(ii) Right to public office:- The constitution of India provides equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters of employment under the state. No citizen shall on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex, descent, place of birth or any of them be ineligible for any office under the state.

Q 6. State any two qualifications of a voter. (1+1 marks)
Ans 6. In India, a person is qualified to exercise his right to vote if:-

(i) He is a citizen of India;
(ii) He is above 18 years of age.

Q 7. What do you mean by counter manding of elections? (2 marks)
Ans 7 When the election commission receives a report from the returning officer that the election procedure in a particular constituency has been violated due to violence or other unlawful means etc., it can order fresh polling to take place in that constituency and declare the previous election null & void. This is called countermanding of elections.

Q 8. How do you define a political party? (2 marks)
Ans 8. By a political party we mean an organised group of citizens who hold common views on public questions and acting as a political unit seek to obtain control of the government with a view to further the programme and the policy which they progess. Thus political parties serve as the motive force in crystallizing public opinion and as the unifying agency which makes democracy workable. They are the vehicles through which individuals and groups work to secure political power and if successful to exercise that power.

Q 9. Write any two functions of a Panchayat Samiti. (1+1 marks)
Ans 9. Panchayat Samiti is the intermediate tier of the Panchayati Raj system at the Block level.

Its functions include:-

(a) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS - to plan and implement production & social welfare programmes, especially with regard to agriculture, irrigation, cottage and small industries, animal husbandry and fisheries, education, health, communications, emergency relief; and

(b) SUPERVISORY FUNCTIONS - to supervise the work of Gram Panchayats, examine and modify the budget of the Gram Panchayats; and make reappropriations and impose new taxes and supervise the work of the Block Development Officer and Vikas Adhikari, etc.

Q 10. Describe the composition of Planning Commission. (2 marks)
Ans 10. By convention, the Prime Minister of India is the Chairman of the Planning Commission. However, since the Prime Minister is only a part-time Chairman and is unable to devote adequate time to its functioning and performance, the deputy chairman of the Commission is its defacto executive head. Amongst the other members, some are ministers in the central government and others are full time members. Since there are no well-defined
regulations on the membership of the Planning Commission, its structural pattern has been changing from time to time.

Q 11. Describe the relationship between Law & Liberty. (4 marks)
Ans 11. Liberty is the condition essential for the development of individual's personality. Therefore, it implies free choice - choice to live the life according to one's own free will. Laws on the other hand place a restrain upon man's freedom. They flow from the state and are backed by force. Apparently, therefore, there seems to be a contradiction between law & liberty.

Individualists feel that laws of the state are always an infringement on the individuality of man. On the other hand collectivists believe that liberty lies in the obedience to the laws of the state. Both these views are historically and scientifically wrong. It is true that laws impose restrain and therefore infringe liberty but these are rules of convenience to promote right living eg. traffic
laws. There are many laws that do not in any way infringe liberty of man eg. unemployment pensions, building dams etc. Further, liberty is not merely negative. It is also positive. It means that liberty must enable a person to develop his personality. Thus liberty implies rights like right to work, education, speech etc. Thus laws that maintain and create these rights do not infringe liberty but make it more effective and operative.

On the other hand, the idealist view, that liberty lies in obedience to law, is not without flaws. The laws of the state can not be considered final. The citizens must participate in the formulation of laws and should have the right to criticise them.

Thus, neither liberty nor law are antithetical nor synonomous, infact liberty is the end of law and law is the condition precedent of liberty.

Q 12. What is the collectivist view of the state activity? (4 marks)
Ans 12. Collectivists regard the state as a positive good and holds that its mission is to promote the common economic, moral and intellectual interests of the people as a whole. The central idea underlying collectivism is that if the mass of the people are to rise above the level of wage slaves, they will have to be protected against the evils of free competition by a greater measure of
interference with and regulation of industry by government as a representative of the community with a view that ultimately all means of production and distribution are collectively owned.

The collectivists demand that the power and authority of the state should be used to limit the free exercise of the sacred right of contract, the sacred right of property, and other hallowed concepts of the eighteenth century. For them the body politic is an organism and the state is best medium through which exploitation, degradation and starvation of the masses can be removed and equality of opportunity provided to all.

Q 13. Mention any four Gandhian Directive principles of State Policy. (4 marks)
Ans 13.Gandhian Directive Principles of State Policy include:-

(a) Article 46 wants the state to promote the lot of SCs & STs. Their educational and economic interest are to be protected. Their exploitation should be stopped.

(b) Article 47 wants to secure the improvement of public health by prohibiting consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs.

(c) Article 40 is directed towards the regeneration of village panchayat.

(d) Article 39 observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing equal pay for equal
work for both men & women.

Q 14. Define Rights. Mention any two economic rights. (2+2 marks)
Ans 14. Rights are those claims which are recognised by the society, enforced by the state and aim at general good. They provide external conditions necessary for the development of individual personality.Thus as Hobhouse puts it, right are, "what we may expect from others and others
from us, and all genuine rights are conditions of social welfare." However, rights are not absolute in nature.Rights have to be limited by the social control in order to be effectively possessed.

Economic rights may include:-

1. Right to work and be paid adequate wages :- Citizens have a right to employment and it is the responsibility of the state to provide suitable work to them. The right to work does not mean the right to do a particular work. It only means some gainful work in society by which one can sustain and nurture ones own self and their dependants. The right to be paid adequate wages does not imply equality of income. It only means conformity to the general principles of equality.

2. Right to property :- For life to be worth living and an incentive for work, every man should be free to use and enjoy his possessions, both movable and immovable. The right to property involves the right to the exclusive use of one's property, the right to alienate it by gift or exchange during life and the right to bequeath.

Q 15. Mention any four measures which ensure representation of minorities. (1+1+1+1 marks)
Ans 15. There are four well-known systems which are adopted to provide adequate representation to the minorities - political and socio-cultural - in a democratic system.

1. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION:- The main focus of this system is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obtains from the electorate in any given election. There are two methods by which proportional representation can be achieved.:
(a) The single transferable vote system (Hare system)
(b) The List system.

2. THE SINGLE NON-TRANSFERABLE VOTE:- In this system a voter can use his vote for only one candidate, out of the many in the field. For eg. in a constituency of 1000 voters, if 10 representatives are to be elected, and each voter gives his vote to only one candidate, then any candidate obtaining more than 100 votes is likely to be elected. This ensures wider representation, covering minority opinion as well.

3. THE CUMULATIVE VOTE:- In this system a voter has as many votes as the number of seats for which the election is held. He has the right and the option of either giving his votes for just one candidate. Through this method, a well-organised minority has an opportunity to get at least one of its representatives elected by comulating all its votes in favour of its own candidate.

4. THE LIMITED VOTE:- The voter in this system can vote for a limited number of candidates and not for all the seats for which the electoral contest is on. He is required to vote for different candidates of his choice. This system makes it difficult for a majority party to capture all the seats. On the contrary minority parties and groups can also win one or two seats.

Q 16. Suggest any four reforms which will ensure free & smooth elections. (1+1+1+1 marks)
Ans 16. The reforms suggested for overcoming misuse of money power are:-

(1) The state should finance the election of candidates, by creating an election fund of about Rs. 100 crores for this purpose.

(2) As in the case of individual candidates, a ceiling on the election expenditure of political parties should also be fixed.

(3) Both individual candidates and parties should submit audited accounts of electoral expenses with a fixed period of time to the Election Commission.

(4) An all party national consensus should be built for finding ways and means of making elections less expensive for overcoming the corrupting influence of money in elections.

Q 17. What is public opinion? Mention any two hindrances in the formation of sound public opinion. (2+1+1 marks)
Ans 17.Organised and considered opinion of a section or many sections of the people, on any issue or problem of public concern, is called public opinion.Public opinion is thus an organisation of separate individual judgements, a "co-operative product of communication and reciprocal influence". A public opinion must be public rather than individual or sectional. And it must really be an opinion firmly and convincingly held. It need not be the majority opinion, nor is unanimity required. The true worth of public opinion is that while the minority may not share the majority opinion, but they must feel by conviction not by fear or coercion,to accept it as it aims at the good of all and no sectional interests are involved.

Hindrances in the formation of a sound public opinion are:-

(1) ILLITERACY:- A considerable portion of Indian population is illiterate. Illiteracy is a bane to sound public opinion. These people are ignorant of hard facts and get easily swayed by political speeches and populist measures of the politicians.

(2) LACK OF REAL LIBERTY:-The high sounding rights that adorn our constitution are not enjoyed in reality by one and all. The lower strata of the society which can not even make their both ends meet can not comment on what's going on around them. Moreover, the presence of mafias and goonda elements in our society do not allow the people to formulate sound public opinion.

Q 18. List two merits & two demerits of multi party system. (2+2 marks )
Ans 18.MERITS OF MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM

(1) A multi-party system is a more democratic and a more open system.It reflects more genuinely the range of opinion in a democracy. It is also more elastic and accomodative and capable of allowing a freer interaction of varied interests, viewpoints and ideological nuances.

(2) A voter has a wider spectrum of choice and a greater chance of applying his discretion for selecting representatives.

DEMERITS OF MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM

(1) There is a lack of choesion in its coalitional form of govt. leading to precarious instability.It produces a patch-work government whose members, drawn from various parties, tend to pull in different directions. The electorate, witnessing the constant tussle and tension within a coalitional govt. gets disenchanted by it quite early.

(2) A coalitional govt. is also a weak government, as it is based on political compromises and tactical toleration among its members. It cannot take bold innitiatives of pursue a policy vigorously, for fear of division and dissent within the govt. and in the legislature.

Q 19. Suggest any four measures by which the working of rural local government will improve.(1+1+1+1 marks)
Ans 19. The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 has given a new impetus and direction to the Panchayati Raj System both in the states and in the Union Territories. The working of rural local government will improve by undertaking the following measures.

(1) Panchayati Raj system should be given a proper statutory base within the constitution and the constitution of the three-tier system should be made obligatory in every state.

(2) Direct elections should take place at periodic intervals for the constitution of members of the local govt. However, there should be a reservation of seats for the SCs & STs in every Panchayat, in proportion to their population in that area. Reservations should also be made for other backward castes and women.

(3) Adequate financial assistance should be provided for developmental activities. Moreover the state legislatures should make necessary laws to authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate certain taxes, duties, tolls and fees for its activities.

(4) Bureaucratic interference should be avoided to make the working of rural govts. free and flowless. Its functioning should not be marred by red-tapism.

What is actually required is a national consensus of the political parties and social forces, to use the Panchayati Raj as an instrument of deepening democratic consciousness and for carrying forward at least a part of the unfinished task of social change and social justice.

Q 20. Describe the role of Planning Commission in bring out socio-economic development in India. (4 marks)
Ans 20. In the new economic environment, economic planning continues to be an important factor determining the strategies for public investment, besides providing guidelines for channelising private sector investment in desired directions. They have to act as "mutually complementary forces" in ensuring rapid economic develoment of the nation. In certain key areas including
energy, human resource development, backward areas development, management of balance of payments etc. a wholistic approach to policy formulation is needed.

Another important area of concern for the planning commission would be that of effecting maximum possible utilization of the plan allocation, rather than aiming at increase in the allocations. The key to efficient utilization of resources lies in the creation of "appropriate self-managed organizations" at all levels.

The Commission will have to play a more integrative role in the development of a wholitic approach to policy formulation in the crucial areas of human and economic development. Areas such as rural health, drinking water, rural energy, literacy and environmental protection will have to gain primacy in the priority outline of the Commission.

In the new milien of economic restructuring, the Planning Commission should concentrate on strategies of employment generation, anti-poverty programmes, social development and ensuring balance within the infrastructure.

Q 21. What do you mean by socialism? Explain its fundamental principles. (2+6 marks)
Ans 21. The term socialism is derived from the word "socious" which means society. Socialism is concerned with society and it is the injustice of the capitalist system that has inspired it. The socialist challenge to the existing order is primarily moral, though its basis is economic. It is the assertion of the rights of the producing class which had never obtained a fair deal anywhere during all stages of social evolution. No reform or change can be of any use, they argue, as long as there is no change in the system by which the few owned and controlled the capital and the whole productive and distributive machine. The socialists, therefore, propose that land and capital, which are the requisites of labour and the sources of all wealth, should be placed under social ownership in order to secure a more equitable distribution of the means and appliances of happiness.

Socialism means the following inter-connected things:-

(a) an egalitarian society:- Socialism insists on human fellowship which denies or expels distinction of class, caste or colour. It aims at reasonable equality in society so that all are able to face each other on equal terms. It holds that there can be no genuine liberty without equality.

(b) satisfaction of basis needs:- Socialists argue that the motive of service. Value should be decided by use and not by terms of exchange. The wealth of the state ought to be so distributed that even the poorest can afford to satisfy his basic needs. We must ensure sufficiency to all before surplus is available to some.

(c) common ownership:- Socialism believes in common ownership and control of means of production eg. land, power etc. These should be administered in the interest of the whole rather than of the parts. Socialists believe that from economic point of view an industry which is collectively owned, will be more efficient and from the moral point of view more satisfying. Socialism believes that inequality of wealth creates inequality of opportunity.

The system of recruitment does not ensure the selection of the best. The children of the rich have opportunities which are often denied to those of the poor who thus start life with initial disadvantage. Such inequality destroys initiative and is therefore inhuman.

(d) ideal of service:- Socialism emphasises the responsibility of all citizens to the common good or general welfare. It protests against harsh materialism and individualism of classical liberals. A capitalist society produces ugly conditions. It insists too much on specialization. It deprives the artisan of his pride in his work. The man is thus reduced to the status of a cog in the machine. He is further condemned to live in slums or to be condemned to stand in the market for weeks or months because his labour is not needed. The worker thus ceases to be a human being.

The socialists do not believe that revolution is inevitable in bringing about change in the society. Gradualism is the watchword of democratic socialism. Therefore, necessary reforms can be made with in the existing democratic framework.

OR

Q 21. Critically examine the concept of Fascism. (8 marks)
Ans 21. Fascism has no specific theory because it emerged as a socio-economic and political programme.

Fascism opposes ideology and maintains that it is an action oriented movement and it is based on pragmatism.

For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its ends. The ideology of Fascism is dominated by the dogmas of a state and an irresistible govt.,which has the right to interfere in all spheres of the individuals' life,whether economic
moral or religious. A citizen's obligation to the state are more important than his rights. Fascism proclaims the rights of the state, pre-eminence of its authority, and the superiority of its end. It repudiates pacifism and glorifies war.They maintain that is essential exercise which keeps the states
healthy and fit.

Fascists recognised no individual liberties as sacred. They instead relied upon the methods of moral intimidation, physical compulsion and official propaganda. It was a punishable crime to criticise government and to conduct propaganda for the doctrines and parties dissolved by the government and
to spread "false" or "exaggerated" news abroad concerning internal conditions of the country.

Fascism had no political theory. The methods which it adopted in the pursuit of its ends were not fixed, as they were not based on any reasoning. They were highly flexible and could easily be adjusted and made workable in attaining its objects; so, naturally, they could not be consistent with
one another.

The state or nation, according to the Fascist assumption, is an independent entity with a real will of its own, which is quite distinct from the popular will which democracy owns. The Fascists deemed popular sovereignity a fictitious creation of democracy and democracy they denounced because it gave power to the masses. Political authority, it was advocated, must be aristocratic
because "only a minority of the nation has the capacity to perceive and give effect to national interest." Sovereignty was not vested in the individual, but in the nation state and only the few selected had the right to speak for the nation.

The Fascists had always been explicit in defence of violence as a means of achieving political aims. Fascism is totalitarian in its means and it uses any form of coercion, from verbal threats to mass murders, for obtaining its ends. Barring this Fascism was also opposed to internationalism and did not give proper regard to interanational law, treaties etc.

Fascism rejected both laisse-faire and state ownership of economy. Private ownership of property was allowed but self-interest must be held in constant subordination to the national interest.

In short, we can say that was a reactionary and counter-revolutionary theory for the defence of crises ridden capitalist order.

Q 22. How are the Fundamental Rights protected by the Right to Constitutional Remedies? (8 marks)
Ans 22. Every citizen must possess the right to enforce his rights. In the absence of such a right, civil and political rights are meaningless. Article 32 of the Constitution of India guaratees to every citizen the right to move the Supreme Court for the Enforcement of Fundamental Rights which can issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. A brief explanation of the writs is as follows:-

Habeas Corpus -
When a person is imprisoned allegedly without procedure established by law, the court can command the authority detaining him to produce him in court and to submit the cause of imprisonment. In case the court finds that there are no significant grounds of detention, the court passes an order that the applicant be set free.

Mandamus -
A writ of mandamus is an order of the court directing a public authority to perform its duty, in its non-performance causes injury to the petitioner.

Certiorari
The writ of certiorari is issued for correcting the errors of jurisdiction or when any court has acted malafide. The writ is not used for declaring an Act or Ordinance as unconstitutional. The writ is issued against a subordinate court, tribunal or any administrative authority if it performs judicial or quasi-judicial functions.

Prohibition
The writ of prohibition is issued if a judicial authority or an administrative authority performing a quasi-judicial function exceeds its jurisdiction.

Quo warrants
This writ is issued to declare that the respondent does not legally hold an office or privilege to which he lays claim. In this writ the court tries the right of the respondent to hold a public office.

Dr. B.R.Ambedkar declared this right to be the soul of the constitution.

OR

Q 22. Explain the Right to Freedom. How can it be suspended? (4+4 marks)
Ans.22 Article 19 of the Constitution Guarantees six freedoms . These include the right:-
(a) to freedom of speech and expression
(b) to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) to form associations or unions
(d) to move freely throuhout the territory of India
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India

(g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business:
[Article 19(f) has been deleted]

No state can give or guarantee absolute or unlimited rights. Every right is subjected to reasonable limitations, the judge of reasonableness of restrictions is the Supreme Court of India.

With regard to limitations on freedom of speech & expression - the constitution imposes eight limitations. They relate to (i) defamation, (ii) Conempt of Court; (iii) decency or morality; (iv) Security of state; (v) friendly relations with foreign states; (vi) incitement to an offence; (vii) Public order; (viii) Maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.

With regard to limitations freedom of assembly - It is stipulated that any assembly must be peaceful and without arms.

As far as limitations on the right to form , associations or unions go the state can impose reasonable restrctions in the interest of public order or morality or the sovereignty or integrity of India. No group of individuals can enter into a criminal conspiracy or form any association detrimental to the Public peace.
With regard to limitations on freedom of movement - the state is empowered to impose restrictions in the interests of the general public or for the protection of any Scheduled Tribe.

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS: There is no specific provision conferring freedom of the press on the Indian Citizen. This freedom is included in the wider freedom of "expression" which is guaranteed by Article 19(a) .The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of the press in the interests of "security of the state, the sovereignty and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, Public order decency or morality, or for the prevention of contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence".

Thus every major Fundamental Right is followed by certain limitations specified by the constitution itself.

Q 23. Evaluate the features of Indian Party System. (8 marks)
In view of the fragmented nature of Indian Society and widespread ideological differences with regard to future of India, right after independence there were a number of political parties ranging from communists to communalists and from laisse-faire to socialist camps. However, for quite some years the Congress remained the Chief party representing a historical consensus and enjoying a continuing basis of support and thrust. This was the so called one-party dominance or the Congress System [in the words of Rajni Kothari]. 1967 elections marked the beginning of the decline of one - party dominance when Congress failed to secure majority in eight states.

Further in 1977 , as a result of victory of a non-congress party at the centre for the first time, many scholars and observers opined that Parliamentary democracy in India had matured and a two party system or close to it was in the process. The hope, however, was shortlived; for the Janta Party was primarily a coalition formed together, for the survival of non-congress parties. After attaining that goal the party's leadership did not make serious efforts for a long term party building process. Result was that internal bickerings and factionalism in the party continued and tarnished its overall reputation.

In 1980 elections, the Indian Party system was again back to one-party dominant system. However, it was a dominance because of failure of national - level non-congress parties and united regional support bases of regional parties. However 1989 elections saw the upcoming of a multi-party
system at the centre. Thus a formal coalition government was formed at the centre. This system got further consolidated in the elections of 1996, 1998 and 1999. The current National Democratic Alliance which is the ruling government today constitutes of more that 15 parties which have come
together formally to form the government. Hence not only the All - India parties but also the regional parties orm the government at the centre.

Thus, the nature of the party system depicts a pattern of steady fragmentation and fragmentation of political forces reflecting social fragmentation and regional division of the country. Most parties have turned out to be coalitions of elites loosely tied together by personal interests and short-term
goals rather than by ideological or pragmatic commitment or long-range objectives. One consequence of this is that the basic principle of party organisation is either personality or region, not policies .

Another consequence of this is that nearly all parties have been beset with factionalism and internal dissensions leading many a times to splits.

Arising out of this is also the fact that there is hardly any party that is not under the control of an autocratic leader. The constitutions of most of the parties are Presidential and the committees are nominated by the President. Adhocism is the norm everywhere. No party has evolved reliable mechanism and workable procedures for managing internal conflicts.

It can thus be said that party system in India has not yet reached that stage of development where ideologies are strong, parties are able to structure meaningful electroal issues and parliamentary opposition successfully channelise popular opposition. The overwhelming importance of personal and ascriptive factors rather than secular and rational factors have contributed to the absence of ideological boundaries between most of the parties and a blurring of them.

OR


Q 23. Examine the role of Telegu Desham & AIADMK as the regional parties in the Atal Behari Vajpayee Government. (8 marks)
Ans 23. In the 12th Lok Sabha no party or pre-election alliance could win the number of seats needed to provide a clear majority. The B.J.P. emerged as the single largest party. But it failed to get the magic number i.e. clear majority. However, the B.J.P. led pre-election alliance of different political parties and individuals emerged as the single largest bloc in the 12th Lok Sabha.

AIADMK won 18 Lok Sabha seats in the 12th Lok Sabha. The leader of the AIADMK Ms. Jaya Lalitha offered the unconditional support of her party. Not only this, she also made it clear that her party would participate in the B.J.P. led government. In this way, the initial political hiccups were over. Now, the number of M.Ps supporting the B.J.P. combination swelled to 264 on March
15, 1998. This number was also short of the clear majority in the House of 539.

The master stroke was hit by the TDP leader and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Mr.Chandrababu Naidu. The TDP won 12 seats in the 12th Lok Sabha and made it clear that it would remain neutral as between the B.J.P. and the Congress. However, it chose to support the confidence motion and
thus, put all types of doubts under carpet. The TDP made it very clear that it would not join the B.J.P. led government. The B.J.P. also gave its total support to the election of Mr. G.M.C. Balayogi of TDP as the new speaker of the House. It was a tactical victory which was clinched by the B.J.P.
over its rivals. The B.J.P. led government won the confidence motion by an impressive 274 to 261.

In this way, the TDP and the AIADMK played a crucial role in the stability of B.J.P. led government.

However, differences kept emerging in the coalition government. The peak was reached when Vajpayee government refused to pull down the DMK government in Tamil Nadu by applying Article 356 as a result of which Jayalalitha pulled her support out of the Vajpayee government which finally led
to the downfall of the government.

Q 24. "Unemployment must be checked by providing more & more employment opportunities for the success of Indian Democracy." Comment. (8 marks)
Ans 24. Unemployment being a problem in itself is also a cause to another major problem i.e. poverty. Both these problems are considered to be fetal for the proper functioning of democracy.

Indian democracy has suffered from such like problems from the time of independence till date. The time when Indian democracy was formed, there were a few essential elements or features such as liberty, equality and fraternity, that were kept in mind. These features were secured in
Indian democracy through the drafting of the constitution and in the articles of the constitution.

However, the implementation of these articles have not been done in the right way, which gave way to problems such as poverty and unemployment. These problems go against the very spirit of the constitution. They also reduce the possibility of people's participation in the democratic process of Indian government.

As democracy develops with the increase in public participation through their opinion and their voting power. If the people or citizens of India won't have enough to eat and wear i.e.if their basic needs are not fulfilled then how would they be encouraged to participate in the political process of the country. In this way, the real meaning of democracy would be lost.

Unemployment has also led the young generation, especially in strife torn areas like J&K and the North-east to cross the borders and join the terrorist camps. Lack of infrastructure and the hesitation on the part of the private investors in these areas has further accentuated the problem.

Unemployment has also led to brain drain from India when the people having the requisite education and talent leave our country for want of better opportunities.

Unemployment should thus be kept in check and more employment opportunities should be created specially in the public sector units. This is the need of the hour; even though it might not be economically viable but it sure is socially viable.

OR

Q 24. "Linguism has played a destructive and not a constructive role in the Indian democratic set up." Comment. (8 marks)
Ans 24. India, as a country, is known for its unity in diversity. At the time of independence, instead of establishing a domination of any one religion, culture or even language, India, through the adoption of democracy and secularism gave every religon its own space and respect.

It was Jawaharlal Nehru who came up with the grand idea of formation of the states on the basis of Language. It was believed that this criteria of differentiation would keep the other kind of harmful ascriptive identities like caste and religion under check.

However, whether this hope has been fulfilled or not has to be examined within a few years after independence, the number of states increased as a result of further bifircation in the mainstream politics. New states on the bases of language were formed. The last state that was formed was Sikkim in 1985. However the matter did not came to rest even after that. People from other
quarters of the country started demanding separate states eg. Jharkhand in Bihar, Uttrakhand in U.P., Chattisgarh in M.P. and Vidarbha in Maharashtra. Bills for the formation of Jharkhand, Uttrakhand and Chattisgarh have been passed by the Lok Sabha hence clearing the way for their formation. Thus the number of the states has been raised to 28. These internal bickerings
followed by violent activities geared by populist measures of the politicians has led to disintegration of the national loyalty. The people identify themselves more with the state rather than the nation. This is not a very healthy trend in the functioning of democracy.

It is because of these very reasons that Linguism has played a harmful role in the Indian political set up.

Q 25. Analyse the areas of co-operation and conflict between India & Sri Lanka. (8 marks)
Ans 25.Ans.
25 India & Sri Lanka are separated by a narrow strip of water. The cultural ties between the two nations go back to antiquity . The relationship between the two remains close even though the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka puts it to test at times.

India & Indian culture has wielded considerable influence on Sri Lanka. King Asoka is known to have sent his son and daughter to spread Buddhism in the Island nation - Buddhism is now the predominant religion of Sri Lanka. Many South Indian kings fought with and conquered the Island. The British also conquered Sri Lanka, and so India and Sri Lanka share an almost similar colonial legacy. India and Sri Lanka had good neighbourly ties till the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka did not drag India to intervene . The issue mainly concerned the status of Tamil speaking population of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.

It was under the premiership of Mr. Rajiv Gandhi that the Indo-Sri Lankan accord was signed and Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was sent to keep peace in the island. But the move did not help and LTTE fought IPKF on its own turf inflicting many casualities. Later, on Sri Lankan request all military forces were withdrawn. Rajiv Gandhi was later assassinated by a LTTE sucide bomber.

Since then the Indian government stuck to non-intervention approach terming Tamil - Sinhalese conflict as an internal matter of Sri Lanka even though it renamed a factor in Tamil Nadu's Politics. Recently when LTTE tried to recapture Jaffna , India was forced to reconsider is approach, especially the 50,000 Sri Lankan Soilders who would have been trapped in the city. India took the diplomatic approach trying to broker peace between the two sides.

Barring this issue, trade between India and Sri Lanka has been substantial. Both are members of SAARC and of the proposed SAPTA. Politically, Sri Lanka has been an important member of NAM and Colombo has even hosted NAM Summit.

Thus India has maintained good neighbourly relations with Sri Lanka.

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Q 25. Evaluate the foreign policy of India as adopted in 1947.
(8 marks)

Ans 25. India's foreign policy, acquired its specific orientation in the phase of global interdependence of states and system that emereged in the post-second world war period. India became free when world had become an organic, one world. The tremendous revolution brought about by new developments in nuclear technology, electronics, space research and communication, coincided with the decolonisation process set in motion in 1945. The main challenge for the newly liberated countries like India, was to bring about a massive, radical and an over-all socio-economic transformation, in the shortest period possible, in order to build their countries as modern nations, keeping in mind the national interests, regional compulsions and global concerns the basic feature of foreign policy adopted in 1947 were:-

(1) Non-Alignment - India decided against joining any of the power blocs and decided to follow an independent foreign policy dictated essentially by national interest. This would help in easing the global tension, oppose policy of confrontation and build a world free from fear, hate and inequality.

(2) Panchsheel and peaceful co-existence - The declaration of 1954 signed by India and China included five principles of mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each others internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence. These principles were adopted by India in its
relations with other nations as well.

(3) India extended support to liberation movements, democratic struggles for national independence and right of self-determinations.

(4) Opposition to imperialism, colonialism, racism and racial discrimination, and to authoritarianism and militarism.

(5) Opposition to arms race, especially nuclear arms race, and support to the process of comprehensive and complete disarmament.

(6) Serious engagement in North-South dialogue and in South-South cooperation, support to global development efforts and to ushering is of the New International Economic order, for a just, equal and humanitarian world system.

(7) Support to international peace and security and to peaceful settlement of disputes and the creation of a non-violent, nuclear weapon-free world.

(8) Prevention of big power intervention or interference in the internal affairs of South Asian region and in the neighbouring countries, promotion of the prospect of making Indian Ocean a Zone of Peace, to avoid big-power naval confrontation in waters close to India.

India's foreign policy, though conceived with considerable foresight and indealism did suffer many set- backs, due to unforeseen developments and the emergence of new factors in the region and in the world. Yet, on the balance, India's foreign policy, enjoying the national consensus of all major parties and groups, has helped India play a prominent and positive
role in the region and on global scene in the defence of peace, disarmament and balanced world development.