CBSE Set Qa1 Political Science Sample Test Papers For Class 12th for students online

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Political Science Class- XII  CBSE)
You are on answers 1 to 10 of Set I

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route 'lag' whihc means to lay, to place, to set So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you under stand by the theory of surplus value?
(2 marks)

Ans. The theory of surplus value is the corner stone of the Marxian economic theory. According to this theory, labour is the source of the value of a commodity. The value of a commodity is determined by the amount of necessary labour time spent on it. Marx defines a commodity as conceiled labour and value as crystalised labour. The capitalist produces a commodity by the application of his labour to machinery and raw material. The commodity then commands a certain market value. The wages which are paid to the worker bear no proportion to the price which the commodity fetches. The difference between the value of the commodity and the wages paid to the worker constitutes the profit or the surplus. The surplus value is appropriated by the capitalist which according to marx ought to have gone to labourers. This, says marx, is pure and simple exploitation.

Q3. What did Gandhiji mean by Ahimsa? (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhiji's greatest contribution to politics in particular and life in general was his teaching and practice of Ahimsa. Negatively, Ahimsa means refraining from causing pain. On the positive side, Ahimsa is co-terminous with the christian principle of love. However, it does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil doer. It is sould force or truth force. It means resistance to evil with all the moral and spiritual force that a person can command.

Q4. Give any two points of difference between the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. The directive principles differ from fundamental rights in these respects:-
(a) The Fundamental Rights are justiciable and the Supreme Court and the High Courts have powers to issue orders or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles, on the other hand, confer no legal rights and create no legal remedies.

(b) The Fundamental Rights are intended to foster the ideal of a political democracy. IN order that the democractic principle may work effectively, the citizens require protection of their life and full opportunity to assemble and express their opinion regarding matters of generla interest. Fundamental Rights are primarily aimed at securing these freedoms to the citizens. The Directive Principles indicate as to what our economic ideal or social order should be.

Q5. Mention any two economic Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. Directive Principles relating to economic justice are as follows:-
(a) Article 39 - observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good. (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women, (e) Protection of the strength and health of workers and avoiding circumstances which force citizens
to enter advocations unsuited to their age or strength.

(b) Article 41 - lays down that effective steps should be taken to make right to work a reality.
Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.

Q6. What do you understand by the statement that Directive Principles are non-justiciable? (2 marks)
Ans. Directive Prinicples are non-justiciable means that they are not backed by the force of law. A citizen can not move the court if these principles are not enforced by the court. Neither can the court issue writs to enforce them. However, the Directive Principles are fundamental in the governance of the country. They are the directives to which the govt. has to turn while making policies and programmes.

Q7. List any two Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen. (2 marks)
Ans. The fundamental duties were incorporated in the Indian constitution for the purpose of making the citizens patriotic and help them to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation. A few of them may be mentioned here:-
1. To abide by and respect the Constitution, the National Flag, and the National Anthem.
2. Defend the country and render national service when required.

Q8. What is meant by public opinion? (2 marks)
Ans. Organised and considered opinion of a section or many sections of the people, on any issue or problem of public concern, is called public opinion. Public opinion is thus an organisation of separate individual judgements, a "co-operative product of communication and reciprocal influence. "A public
opinion must be public rather individual or sectional. And it must really be an opinion firmly and convincingly held. It need not be the majority opinion, nor is unanimity required. The true worth of public opinion is that while the minority may not share the majority opinion, but they must feel by conviction not by fear or coercion, to accept it as it aims at the good of all and no sectional interests are involved.

Hindrances in the formation of a sound public opinion are:-

(1) ILLITERACY:- A considerable portion of Indian population is illiterate. Illiteracy is a bane to sound public opinion. These people are ignorant of hard facts and get easily swayed by political speeches and populist measures of the politicians.

(2) LACK OF REAL LIBERTY:- The high sounding rights that adorn our constitution are not enjoyed in reality by one and all. The lower strata of the society which can not even make their both ends meet can not comment on what's going on around them. Moreover, the presence of majias and goonda elements in our society do not allow the people to formulate sound public opinion.

Q9. Are regional parties necessary? Give any two arguments in support of your anwer. (2 marks)
Ans. Regional parties are those which generally and exclusively operate within a limited geographical area of a state, or which represent primodial loyalties.

(1) Considering the continental size of India and the wide range of socio-cultural and ethnic diversities, it is natural for these diversities to aspire for political autonomy. One way of expressing political autonomy is the formation of regional parties and groups, in order to bargain with the centre for a better
deal for regional development.

(2) Over the years, the national parties have neglected to give adequate importance to their regional and state units. Moreover the control of state affairs by the central leadership and their style of working and public behaviour towards state leaders, were often arbitrary and not quite democractic. Regional Parties, not only give adequate attention to local issues but also redeem the self-respect of state leadership.

Q10. What do you understand by three-tier system under Panchayati Raj? (2 marks)
Ans. Three-tier system under Panchayati Raj has a three-tier structure of local self-govt. from the village to the district. The basic unit of the three-tier structure was the Gram Panchayat consisting of 5-30 members elected directly on the basis of adult franchise by the village people for a period of four years. The second tier was to be the Panchayat Samiti to function at the block level. The block can be described generally as the primary unit of community Development. The Zilla Parishad was to be the apex institution of the Panchayati Raj. Its members were to be directly elected ones as well as ex-officio like the chairman of the Panchayat Samities of the district concerned.

Q11. Mention any two functions of Panchayat Samiti. (2 marks)
Ans. The Panchayat Samiti may be enthrusted with the following functions:- (a) Delegated functions:- to implement and coordinate the policy directives of the state government with regard to development and extension programmes.

(b) Development functions:- to plan and implement production and social welfare programmes, especially with regard to agriculture, irrigation, cottage and small industries, animal husbandry and fisheries, cooperatives, education, health, communications etc.

Q12. State any two sources of income of the Municipal Corporation. (2 marks)
Ans. TAX SOURCES: A corporation is generally empowered to levy the following taxes: Property tax, theatre tax, tax on vehicles and animals, tax on advertisement, Profession tax, education tax, entertainment tax, tax on consumption and sale of electricity.

NON-TAX SOURCES : Non-tax revenue includes fees relating to building, fees under communications and license fees for dangerous and offensive traders.

Q13. List any two methods by which illiteracy may be eradicated from India. (2 marks)
Ans. One of the ways to eradicate illiteracy from India is to implement Article 45 of the constitution which aims at providing free and compulsory education for all children until they reach the age of 14 years.
Barring this, the control of population explosion can also be considered as a step in eradicating illiteracy in India. Mass propaganda, easy availability of contraceptives and women empowerment can be a step in this direction.

Q14. What do you understand by SAARC? (2 marks)
Ans. South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation has marked the beginning of regional cooperation in South Asia. Its establishment is backed by the concept of regional integration. It links several nations of a region in collective decision- making system which also implies mutual obligations and common interests.
SAARC seeks to promote the welfare of peoples in South Asian countries and to improve their quality of life through economic growth and socio-cultural development.

Q15. Give any three features of the idealist state. (3 marks)
Ans. The Idealist Theory of state, variously known as the philosophical, metaphysical or the absolutist theory, is the product of the teachings of Plato and Aristotle, but in its modern typical form it was expounded by the German Philosopher, Megal.
(1) They considered the state an organic unity and held it as the highest expression of social morality. Since the state is a moral organism, every individual is its inseparable part and he depends for his existence upon it.

(2) The individual apart from society has no meaning. He has no natural rights. Rights flow to him because he is a creature of society and the state is the creator and guarantor of those rights. It gurantees rights by creating conditions necessary for the full moral development of individuals personality.

(3) The state can do no wrong and its laws can never be unjust. Its authority must be obeyed without demur and resistnace to its commands or revolt against its authority, however oppressive, is wicked and iniquitous.

Q16. "State is the means and the individual is the end". What do you understand by this statement? (3 marks)
Ans. It is the individualists who regard the state as the means and the individual as an end. Individualism recogniseds the individual as the centre of all social life and aims to establish that the state should leave him alone to determine his own destiny and the fullest and free development of his capacities and interests. The advocates of individualism maintain that it is for him and by him that the whole social structure exists and derives its being Individualism thus, exalts the individual to the position of reality in life.

As society itself is nothing but the totality of individuals themselves, the state exists to protect and restrain, not to foster and promote. The state is a necessary evil and it continues to exist so long as man does not attain perfection. Its functions are, accordingly, negatively regulative or protective, which include : protection from foreign aggression, protection of property from robbery and damage and protection of individuals against false contracts or breaches of contracts.

Q17. Mention any three political rights. (3 marks)
Ans. Political rights are possessed by those persons whom the state permits to share in the legal expression and administration of its sovereign power. They give an equal opportunity to the individual to take part in the political affairs of his community and influence the policy of his government. Political rights consists in:-
(a) Right to vote:- This means that every adult citizen has the right to express his opinion by casting a vote at the time of election what persons he desires should undertake the task of government. The right to vote is the product of democracy. It is contended that the right to vote should be as wide as possible and one man, one vote, ought to be the maximum of a democratic government.

(b) Right to be elected :- Right to vote and the right to be elected as a representative are twinborn and essential for a democratic government. The responsibilities of representatives are enormous and difficult, because they make laws and control and determine the national expenditure and revenues. It is, accordingly, necessary that the representatives should be chosen with due regard to their experience of public affairs and renowned for their honesty, integrity and selfless patriotism.

(c) Right to hold public office:- The Constitution of India provides equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters of employment under the state, irrespective of religion, race, caste or sex. This is the gift of democracy which gives equal right to all citizens.

Q18. How would you say that rights and duties are the two sides of a coin? (3 marks)
Ans. Rights and duties are two faces of the same coin. The rights are considered to be essential for the expansion of human personality. They offer the individual sufficient scope for free action and thus prepare ground for self - development. However these rights become meaningless in the absence of duties.

Prof. Laski lays down a four - fold connection between rights and duties.

1. My right implies your duty : e.g. my right to life implies that others should give protection and security to my life.

2. My right implies my duty to admit a similr right of others :- e.g. my right to speech implies that it is my duty to see that I may not be a hinderance in the free exercise of this right by others.

3. I Shoud exercise my right to promote social good :- A person should not abuse/misuse the rights given to him by the state or else the state will be justified in depriving the person of his right .

4.Since the state guarantees and maintains my rights, I have the duty to support the state :-

Thus rights without duties have no meaning and duties without rights appear senseless.

Q19. What do you mean by proportional representation? (3 marks)
Ans. The main focus of this system is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obains from the electrorate in any given election. Thus, it seeks to remedy a prevalent imbalance in most of the election systems, in which there is no direct correlation between votes and seats. The two methods by which proportional representation can be achieve are: single transferable vote system or the Hare system and the list system.

Q20. Distinguish between direct and indirect elections. (3 marks)
Ans. Direct elections take place when the representatives are directly elected/chosen by the voters. The people at large cast their vote and choose the candidates of their choice to run the country. This takes place in the elections to the lower house at both the central and the state levels. Indirect elections, however, refers to the mode of election in which the people (at large) do not themselves participate in the election of the candidate but he is chosen by the elected representatives of the people. The people restore their faith in the elected representatives and it is the latter who chooses the candidate in a system of indirect elections. An intermediate body called electoral college is formed for the purpose. However, none exists in the scheme of direct elections. In India, the President is chosen by a system of indirect elections.

Q21. State any three functions of the Election Commission. (3 marks)
Ans. The main functions of the Election Commission include:-
(i) To prepare, revise, update and maintain the list of voters for election to the Parliament, State Legislatures, Local bodies and to the office of the President and the Vice-president of India.

(ii)To conduct and supervise elections and bye-election to the Parliament, state Legislatures, and to the Office of the President and the Vice-President of India.

(iii)To delimit constituencies for the election to the Parliament and to the State legislatures, and to allot a number of seats to each of them

(iv) To fix the election proramme, including dates for nomination and scrunity of candidates, and date of elections; make arrangements for setting up necessary number of polling booths, lay down procedure for the exercise of secret ballot, appoint adequate number of returning officers, and declare results after the proper counting and scrutiny of votes.

Q22. Suggest any three reform in the electoral process of India.
Ans. The reforms suggested for overcoming misuse of money power are:-
(1) The state should finance the election of candidates, by creating an election fund of about Rs. 100 crores for this purpose.

(2) As in the case of individual candidates, a ceiling on the election expenditure of political parties should also be fixed.

(3) Both individual candidates and parties should submit audited accounts of electoral expenses with a fixed period of time to the Election Commission.

(4) An all party national consensus should be built for finding ways and means of making elections less expensive for overcoming the corrupting influence of money in elections.

Q.23. 'India is a Secular State'. Give any three arguments in support of your answer. (3 marks)
Ans. Secularism in India revolves around the idea of equal respect for all religions. It recognises that the state is tolerant of all religions. Articles 25-30 provide for freedom of religion and protection of cultural and educational rights of minorities.
(1) It guarantees freedom of religion to individuals as well as to religious groups.

(2) It guarantees equality of citizenship that is no discrimination on grounds of religion (Article 15.1), equality of opportunity in public employment (Article 16.12), no discrimination in educational institutions (Article 29.2) and no communal electorate (Article 325).

(3) It provides for separation of state and religion, i.e., no special taxes for promotion of religion, i.e., no special taxes for promotion of religion (Article 27) and no religious instructions in state educational institutions (Article 28)

The provisions in these articles make clear that the intention of the Constitution is neither to oppose religion nor to promote a rationalisation of culture but merely to maintain the neutrality and impartiality of the state in matters of religion.

Q24. How does inequality hinder the success of Indian democracy? (3 marks)
Ans. Equality of all citizens is the base of democracy. It involves absence of legal discrimination against any one individual, group, class or race. It also involves equal claims to adequate opportunities for all, recognition of the fact that there can be no person or group may be sacrificed to another. Finally, claims to minimum of education, housing, food and guarantees against economic insecurity.

In the absence of the above conditions, man's life would be miserable in society. Since democracy involves the participation of all, in the absence of political equality, the very essence would be betrayed. Even if political equality is provided, the economically weaker sections might get sidetracked or bullied down by the stronger sections of the society. Not only this social inequality in terms of sex, race, religion or caste may further create discontent amongst the masses thereby hindering the democratic processes. Hence, equality is the key to a democratic government.

Q25. Suggest any three measures necessary for the upliftment of the scheduled castes.(3 marks)
Ans. One of the cherished goals of our nation, as articulated by the national movement and enshshrined in the constitution, is the establishment of an egalitarian society. Thus socially and economically backward castes have been given special privileges by the Indian Constituion.

(1) Untouchability is banned by the constitution. However, this provision should be enforced more vigorously and people should be enlightened in this regard.

(2) Scholarship schemes, Book bank schemes and Girls hostel schemes for scheduled castes should be further extended. It is very important to educate this strata of society, so that they can join the mainstream without any hindrance.

(3) Centrally sponsored scheme and research and training provided to scheduled castes can help them to find jobs and prepare for competitive examinations.

Q26. What do you know about National Development Council?
(3 marks)

Ans. The National Development Council is one of the key organizations of the planning system in India. It symbolizes the federal approach to planning and is the instrument for ensuring that the planning system adopts a truly national perspective. Its status has been determined by the prevailing political climate and the support provided to it by the government in power at the centre and the effectiveness of the pressures exerted by the state governments. Not with standing the vicissitudes that it has faced during the past four decades, its continuing presence in the apex-policy structure has always been felt. The functions of the NDC, as revised in 1967, following the adoption of the recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission, are as follows:-

(1) To prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the national plan;

(2) To consider the national plan as formulated by the Planning Commission.

(3) To assess resources required for implementing the plan and to suggest ways and means for raising them.

(4) To consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting development.

(5) To review the working of the plan from time to time and to recommend such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets articulated in the national plan.

Q27. Explain the relationship between liberty and equality. (6 marks)
Ans. Historically speaking the glorification of Liberty precedes that of equality. Be it the ancient Greek & Roman ideals of liberty of Locke's Natural rights, the concept of equality was not to be found. It was during the American & the French revolutions in 1776 & 1789 respectively that the idea of equality got itself aligned to liberty. However, Schlars like lord acton and Tocqueville still insisted that equality destroyed the possibility of having liberty. According to them Liberty means absense of any restrain or coersion whereas equality
needs some restrain or levelling which is against the principles of Liberty.

But such a concept of liberty is based on misunderstanding of the term. Liberty does not mean mere absense of restrain . It means to be autonomous and self - determining. It implies that whatever autonomy I have will not prevent others from equal autonomy. It implies that we are all equally entitled to realise our capacities. Equality is the condition in which this takes place to the maximum . For e.g. (i) Political equality is best gauranteed in a democracy in which each citizen is to count for one.

(ii) Civil equality or equality before law is the precondition of freedom. Laws should equally guarantee security of person & property because it is only then that we can have conditionsnecessary for enjoyment of our autonomy.

(iii)As far as economic equality is concerned, it has been seen that all laws and taxes dimnish one's Liberty but sometimes they do so to increase the general Liberty.

Thus relating to development of human personality, it is required that the ideals of equality & Liberty should have a simultaneous flow.

Q28. Write an essay on Fascism. (6 marks)
Ans. Fascism has no specific theory because it emerged as a socio-economic and political programme. Fascism opposes ideology and maintains that it is an action oriented movement and it is based on pragmatism.

For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its ends. The ideology of Fascism is dominated by the dogmas of a state and an irresistible govt., which has the right to interfere in all spheres of the individuals' life, whether economic moral or religious. A citizen's obligation to the state are more important than his rights. Fascism proclaims the rights of the state, pre-eminence of its authority, and the superiority of its end. It repudiates pacifism and glorifies war. They maintain that is essential exercise which keeps the states healthy and fit.

Fascists recognised no individual liberties as sacred. They instead relied upon the methods of moral intimidation, physical compulsion and official propaganda. It was a punishable crime to criticise government and to conduct propaganda for the doctrines and parties dissolved by the government and to spread "false" or "exaggerated" news abroad concerning internal conditions of the country.

Fascism had no political theory. The methods which it adopted in the pursuit of its ends were not fixed, as they were not based on any reasoning. They were highly flexible and could easily be adjusted and made workable in attaining its objects; so, naturally, they could not be consistent with one another.

The state or nation, according to the Fascist assumption, is an independent entity with a real will of its own, which is quite distinct from the popular will which democracy owns. The Fascists deemed popular sovereignity a fictitious creation of democracy and democracy they denounced because it gave power to the masses. Political authority, it was advocated, must be aristocratic because "only a minority of the nation has the capacity to perceive and give effect to national interest." Sovereignty was not vested in the individual, but in the nation state and only the few selected had the right to speak for the nation.

The Fascists had always been explicit in defence of violence as a means of achieving political aims. Fascism is totalitarian in its means and it uses any form of coercion, from verbal threats to mass murders, for obtaining its ends. Barring this Fascism was also opposed to inter- nationalism and did not give proper regard to interanational law, treaties etc.

Fascism rejected both laissez-faire and state ownership of economy. Private ownership of property was allowed but self-interest must be held in constant subordination to the national interest.

In short, we can say that was a reactionary and counter-revolutionary theory for the defence of crises ridden capitalist order.
Q29. Examine the Right to Freedom of the Indian citizens. (6 marks)
Ans. Article 19 of the Constitution Guarantees six freedoms . These are right to ;
(a) freedom of speech and expression
(b) to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) to form associations or unions
(d) to move freely throuhout the territory of India
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
(g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business:
[Article 191(f) has been deleted]

No state can give or guarantee absolute or unlimited rights. Every right is subjected to reasonable limitations, the judge of reasonableness of restrictions is the Supreme Court of India.

With regard to limitations on freedom of speech & expression - the constitution imposes eight limitations.
They relate to (i) defamation, (ii) Conempt of Court; (iii) decency or morality; (iv) Security of state; (v) friendly relations with foreign states; (vi) incitement to an offence; (vii) Public order; (viii) Maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.

With regard to limitations freedom of assembly - It is stipulated that any assembly must be peaceful and without arms.

As far as limitations on the right to form , associations or unions go the state can impose reasonable restrctions in the interest of public order or morality or the sovereignty or integrity of India. No group of individuals can enter into a criminal conspiracy or form any association etrimental to the Public peace.

With regard to limitations on freedom of movement - the state is empowered to impose restrictions in the interests of the general public or for the protection of any Scheduled Tribe.

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS: There is no specific provision conferring freedom of the press on the Indian Citizen. This freedom is included in the wider freedom of "expression" which is guaranteed by Article 191 (a) .The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of the press in the interests of "security of the state, the sovereignty and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, Public order decency or morality, or for the prevention of contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence".

Thus every major Fundamental Right is followed by certain limitations specified by the constitution itself.

Q30. Define political parties. Discuss their role in modern democracy. (6 marks)
Ans. By a political party we mean an organised group of citizens who hold common views on public questions and acting as a political unit seek to obtain control of the government with a view to further the programme and the policy which they progess. Thus political parties serve as the motive force in crystallizing public opinion and as the unifying agency which makes democracy workable. They are the vehicles through which individuals and groups work to secure political power and if successful to exercise that power.

Political parties are almost indispensable part of present day political systems. Modern form of representative democracy, in particular, laid down the rule that political party in one form, or another is omnipresent in the political process. The phenoner of party is linked with the growth of complexity of political systems in which the notion of political power has come to include the idea that the mass public must participate or be controlled.

In general the role of parties is not similar in all aspects and at all times in all the socieities. In developing societies, the political parties are expected to lay an active entrepreneurial role in the formation of new ideas, in the establishment of a network of communication for those ideas and in the linking of the public and the leadership in such a way that power is generated, mobilised and directed. It is the political parties that organize the vastly
diversified people by nominating candidates for office and by popularizing the ideas around which governmental programmes are built. They are vehicles through which individuals and groups work to secure political power and if successful, to exercise that power.

Political parties, thus, bring order out of chaos by putting before a multitudeof people their programmes and securing their approval on vital issues of policy. They plan and contest elections and endeavour to win by taking up positins on policy matters and presenting them as choices between parties. By raising issues, selecting from them, taking sides and generating political heat they educate the public and clarify opinion. The first role of the political parties is to sort out the issues for the electorate. They select candidates for election, plan and execute the election campaign and present them with alternatives to the people between which they may choose. The second role of the parties is to supply the majorities without which govt. cannot remain in power. The govt. would have no stability and no power to plan a coherent policy, national or international if it did not have a majority. Parties provide alternative teams to run the govt. They prevent the same people remaining in power too long and lookin on an office as a matter of right. A party system always reminds the rulers that the ultimate appeal rests with the people, and they must remember those to whom they will have to account in the future as well as those who entrusted them with power.

An important function of the political parties is to unite the many segments of the society on common goals and attain political power on their behalf and form the govt. We can thus end here with Edmund Burke's definition of party "as a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed."

Q31. Explain the policies and programmes of the Congress I.
(6 marks)

Ans. The Congress party since independence has been the most pervasive political force in the Country. It has been a macro political system, holding together micro sub-systems comprising fctions, forums, groups, lobbies, coteries, etc., which constantly interact on the political processes of the Congress, providing it simultaneously a multi-caste, multicommunity and multi-class base.

As regards the political issues, the Congress (I) aims to give power to the people by bringing back to Parliament the Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika bills. It also aims to preserve the Counry's unity, integrity and to thwart effortsto undermine its secular heritage. It also pledges to bring sweeping reforms in judiciary to ensure quick & inexpensive justice. Congress wants to work to maintain communal peace & ranquility and to foster understanding and amity between different communities.

On the economic front, the Congress(I) aims to pursue an employment - oriented development strategy, to reorient public investment to promote the rowth and expansion of employment - intensive economic acivities. Jawahar Yojna and Nehru RozgarYojna will be implemented more viorously, and more funds will be implemened more viorously, and more funds will be provided to facilitate this. It also seeks to consolidate Harijan and Adivasi Welfare Programme and rain SC & ST communities in modern skills and technology. Congress (I) also promises to introduce specific social security schemes in the unorganised sector to provide medical treatment, maternity benefit as well as old age pension. It gives top priority to developing export capability in a wide range of industries to ensure foreign exchange earning needed to finance industrial expansion and modernization.

With reference to social issues, it aims to wok for the emancipation of women and their socio-economic advancement, especially of poor women in rurual areas, by adopting a holistic approach to all their problems. It also seeks to increase theaccess of low income groups to instituional financing and housing

As regards the foreign policy issues, Conress party adheres to the policy of non-alignment based on the principles of sovereign equality, mutual respect and non-interference in inernal affairs and also seeks to mainain friendly relations with all countries. Conress party wants to pursue an action plan for promoting the prospets of a nuclear weapon free & a non-violent word. It extends its support for the legitimate demand for a Palestinian homeland.

Q32. Examine India's role in the Non-Aligned Movement. (6 marks)
Ans. Nehru, was the first Counry to have adopted the Policy ofnon-alignment . India's policy is positive or dynamic neutralism in which a counry acts independently and decides its policy on each issue on its merit. Nehru was committed to western concept ofliberalism and democracy. But he did not approve of the Military alliances. He was impressed by socialism & strongly advocated the idea of democratic socialism. Nehru was a combination of a socialist and a liberal democrat. India was opposed to the very idea of power bloc & hence its policy of non-alignment wasnot to promote a third bloc, but to ensure freedom of decision - making of the decolonised states.

India's policy of non - alignment was against the status quo situation in international politics. That meant opposition of colonialism, imperialism, racial discrimination & now of neo-colonialism. India wants a world free of these evils. Secondly , non-alignment rejects the concept of superiority of Super Powers. It advocates Soveign equality of all states. Thirdly, non-alignment encourages friendly relations among countries. It is opposed to he alliances that divide the world into roups of states, or power blocs. Non-alignment advocates peaceful settlement of international disputes and rejects the use of force. It favours complete destruction of nuclear weapons & pleads for comprehensive disarmament. It supports all efforts to strengthen the United Nations.

India's policy of non-alignment emphasises the Social & Economic problems of mankind. India has been fully supporting the demand for a new international economic order so that the unjust & unbalanced existing economic order may be changed into a new & just economic order.

India's campaign against the policy of aparthied followed in South Africa till a few years back is well known. The world-wide condemnation of such discrimination gave it a deathblow.

India's efforts in calling for a nuclear weapon free world has made history by the way of blocking the NPT & the CTBT. All said & done, India's role in non-aligned movement has been commendable.