CBSE Set Qa1 Political Science Sample Test Papers For Class 12th for students online

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Political Science Class- XII ( CBSE)
(You are on answers 1 to 12 of Set I)


Q1. What do you understand by Fascism?
Ans. 1 Fascism is derived from the word 'Fascio' which means an organised political group or a club. Fascism was not a well-knit doctrine. It was more of an attitude. It openly opposes ideologies and maintains that it is an action oriented movement based on pragmatism. However, its
ideology was described in the form formlated by leaders like Mussolini & Hitler.

Fascism supports the idea of a totalitarian state and believes in aggressive nationalism. It is opposed to internationalism.It is basically anti-revolutionary and anti-democratic.

Q.2. Explain a 'Laissez - faire state'?
Ans.2The first phase of liberalism saw the rise of a laissez-faire state or a free market state. Here the stress lies on individualism. Laissez-faire state provides a breeding ground for a capitalist economy. Here the state is seen as a necessary evil which should perform minimum functions
like maintenaneof law and order and should have no conrol on trade, capital investment and business growth . Individual rights are given supreme importance and the state is governed by the Darwainian theory of "Survival of the fittest".

However, such a kind of state increases the gap between the rich and the poor leading to cyclic booms and depressions in the economy. Hence some kind of regulation is needed. The main proponents of laissez - faire state were Adam Smith & Locke.

Q.3. Describe any two Directive Principles related to the welfare of women in India?
Ans.3 The Directive principles lay down some 19 objectives enjoining the state to undertake within its means a number of welfare measures. Directives related to the welfare of women in India are:

(1) Article 39 [d] :- Directs the state policy towards securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women. It thus seeks to end the age-old discrimination between men & women and gives her an equal
footing with men.
(2) Article 42 :- Lays down that the state shall make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Thus the maternity period will no longer be considered as an hinderance in a women's career when she will get a relief benefit during that period.

Q. 4. "Rights imply duties." Comment?
Ans.4 Rights and duties are two faces of the same coin. The rights are considered to be essential for the expansion of human personality. They offer the individual sufficient scope for free action and thus prepare ground for self - development. However these rights become meaningless in the
absence of duties.

Prof. Laski lays down a four - fold connection between rights and duties.

1. My right implies your duty : e.g. my right to life implies that others should give protection and security to my life.

2. My right implies my duty to admit a similr right of others :- e.g. my right to speech implies that it is my duty to see that I may not be a hinderance in the free exercise of this right by others.

3. I Shoud exercise my right to promote social good :- A person should not abuse/misuse the rights given to him by the state or else the state will be justified in depriving the person of his right .

4.Since the state guarantees and maintains my rights, I have the duty to support the state.

Thus rights without duties have no meaning and duties without rights appear senseless.

Q 5 What do you understand by proportional representation?
Ans.5 The main focus of this system is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obains from the electrorate in any given election. Thus, it seeks to remedy a prevalent imbalance in most of the election systems, in which there is no direct correlation between votes and seats. The two methods by which proportional representation can be achieve are: single transferable vote system or the Hare system and the list system.

Q.6 Describe any two tests of a good electoral system?
Ans.6 The following conditions are necessary for the successful functioning of an electoral system:-
(i) The existence of an independent judiciary to interpret electoral laws.
(ii) The setting up of an autonomous , fair - minded and competent administrative machinery to conduct elections e.g. Election Commission in India.

Q.7 Mention any two advantages of the multi-party system?
Ans.7 A multiparty system which necessarily is a system of coalitional government has the following advantages:-

(i) It is a more democratic and a more open system. It reflects more genuinely the range of opinion in a democracy. It is also more elastic and accomodative, and capable of allowing a freer interaction of varied interests, view-points and ideological nuances.

(ii) Under this system, a voter has a wider spectrum of choice and a greater chance of applying his discretion for electing representatives.

Q.8. Mention any two hindrances in the formulation of sound public opinion in India?
Ans.8 The following are the hindrances in the formulation of sound public opinion:-
(i) Illiteracy: - A considerable portion of Indian population is illiterate. Illiteracy is a bane to sound puplic opinion. These people are ignorant of the hard facts and get easily swayed by political speeches and populist measures of the politicians. Poverty also limits their choices and they
tend to favour those who give them material benefits.

(ii) Lack of real liberty :- The high sounding rights that adorn our constitution are not enjoyed in reality by one and all. The lower strata of the society which can not even make their both ends meet can not comment on what's going on around them. Their main aim is to earn a living for themselves. Moreover the presence of mafias & goonda elements in our society do not allow the people to formulate sound public opinion.

Q. 9. Describe any two tiers of Panchayati Raj in India?
Ans.9 Panchayati Raj System is a three-tier structure, two of which are described below:-
(i) Gram Sabha: - The Gram Sabha is the general body of the local citizens comprising all the eligible voters in the village or group of villages over which the Gram Panchayat as an Executive Committee exercises is jurisdiction. It is expect to meet twice a year, and work as the watch - dog of the Gram Panchayat. The Gram Panchayat has its jurisdiction over a village or a group of villages. It consists of 5 - 31 members elected by the Gram Sabha, through secret ballot for a period of 3 - 5 yeas.
The members are called Panchas and the President as the Sarpanch.

(ii) Panchayat Samiti:- The intermediate tier of the Panchayati Raj system is located at the Block level. It is a vital link between the village and the district. The sarpanchs of all the Panchayats within the Block are the ex-officio members of the Panchayat Samiti. Other ex-officio members include the Chairman of Primary co-operative Agricultural Development Bank , Director of District Co- operaive Central bank,and the President of Primary Co-operative Marketing Society. All the MLA's ,
MLCs, & MPs of the area are included as associate members. The term of office for the members is 3 - 5 years. The general body meets once in 3 months.

Q.10.State any two functions of the National Development council.
Ans.10.The functions of the National Development Council, as revised in 1967 , following the adoption of the recommendation of the Adminisrative Reforms Commission, are as follows:-

(i) It considers the national plan as formulated by the Planning Commission and also assesses the resources required for implementing the plan and to suggest ways and means for raising them.

(ii)It reviews the working of the plan from time to time and recommends such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets articulated in the national plan.

Q. 11 What are the two main characteristics of a good law? Give two reasons why do we obey laws?
Ans.11 A law is a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all.
(i) Every law must have `validity' as well as `value', validity in the sense of a formal character of law and value in the sense that it should inhere in it the community's sense of right and justice. Thus , whenever there is a conflict between law and the moral order, such enactment lacks
legitimacy in the eyes of the people.

(ii)A law may be just or unjust, good or bad, but it has the authority of the state behind it. This is because a legal order is related to the protection of rights and securing of social justice to all. People obey laws not only because they are laid down by the state but also because laws promote the community welfare while giving enough space to the individual to develop, they also limit his sphere of activity to a point where it starts abridging on other's equal rights.

People also obey laws because they have the sanctions of the state behind them. People who break the laws are punished by the state and it is this fear of punishment that makes the people law abiding.

Q. 12 How far is it correct to say that Liberty and equality are complementary to each other?
Ans.12 Historically speaking the glorification of Liberty precedes that of equality. Be it the ancient Greek & Roman ideals of liberty of Locke's Natural rights, the concept of equality was not to be found. It was during the American & the French revolutions in 1776 & 1789 respectively that the idea of equality got itself aligned to liberty. However, Scholars like Lord Acton and Tocqueville still insisted that equality destroyed the possibility of having liberty. According to them Liberty means absense of any restrain or coercion whereas equality needs some restrain or levelling which is against the principles of Liberty.

But such a concept of liberty is based on misunderstanding of the term. Liberty does not mean mere absense of restrain . It means to be autonomous and self - determining. It implies that whatever autonomy I have will not prevent others from equal autonomy. It implies that we are all equally entitled to realise our capacities. Equality is the condition in which this takes place to the maximum . For e.g.

(i) Political equality is best gauranteed in a democracy in which each citizen is to count for one.

(ii) Civil equality or equality before law is the precondition of freedom. Laws should equally guarantee security of person and property because it is only then that we can have conditions necessary for enjoyment of our autonomy.

(iii)As far as economic equality is concerned, it has been seen that all laws and taxes diminish one's Liberty but sometimes they do so to increase the general Liberty.

Thus relating to development of human personality, it is required that the ideals of equality & Liberty should have a simultaneous flow.

Q.13 Mention any two obligatory and any two voluntary functions of the modern state ?
Ans.13 The modern state can correctly be termed as a welfare state as it takes upon itself the Social responsibility of providing goods and services to the weaker sections in society. The obligatory functions of the state include the following:

(i) Maintenance of law and order in the society: This would include preventing internal disturbance as well as foreign aggression. The state seeks to provide communal harmony in the society. It also establishes a strong police force and an attenteive varmed forces at the borders for security purposes.

(ii) Provides justice to one and all :- This is the second most important function of the state. The state ensure its citizens equal rights and pays heed to their grievances. The offenders of law are punished
and hence a just society comes to fore. Moreover special provisions are made for the minorities so that they do not feel alienated. Besides these obligatory functions which every state performs, there are certain other functions that the state may take up depending upon their economic resources. These are:-

(a) The state may provide certain Economic rights to te individuals including right to work, right to work, right to secure income, right to shelter. It may carry forward mass literacy programmes and provide unemployment benefits. It may also carry out programmes for health care
and environment protection.

(b) The state may also bring about some land reforms. It may provide subsidies to agriculture and high price support to farmers. it may educate the farmers in latest farm technology and ensure supply of goods and fertilizers. furthermore , through programmes like food to the poor , it may
also distribute food to the needy.

Q14.How far is it correct to say that India is a welfare state?
Ans.14 India accepted the idea of a welfare state from the very beginning. Under the Five year Plans.Comprehensive efforts have been made to reduce inequalities in society, create an atmosphere of security & service and provide a national minimum to all. `Garibi Hatao' and `Employment to All' are the basic catchwords which embody the concern of the state. Besides maintaining law and order, the state is employing its basic energies for economic , social & even moral welfare (i) It is trying to secure human equality and social justice (ii) Social rights are being secured to weaker sections including scheduled casts and scheduled tribes (iii) Major industries and banks are in the Public Sector (iv) Private Sector is subject to state planning & detailed regulation by government (v) The state is the largest employer in the country. Public & Private Sectors are, thus, combined in the mixed economy .

The impact of the welfare state is apparent. The standard of living of the working class and peasants has improved, at least in some areas. Today more children have access to schools. But despite all this There is much to be done. A large section of our population lives below the poverty line. There are substantial inequalities of income and opportunity. But the success of our welfare state will depend on the speed of our economic growth. Moreover, the state should rise above caste or class or community consideration in the overall interest of all is society.

Q.15.Elaborate the differences between territorial and functional representation?
Ans.15.There are two well-known criteria of general representation, namely, territorial or geographical division of constituencies, and functional or occupational basis for composing a constituency.
Under the territorial representation system, the total electorate of the country is divided into territorial constituencies, which elect one representative or more. The entire population is divided into constituencies with more or less equal number of voters. Following a new census these constituencies are delimited a new to accommodate increase/decrease of voters as the case may be.

However under the functional representation system the citizens are divided into constituencies on the basis of their economic functions or occupational interests, which they represent in the society. For instance, there would be separate constituencies for farmers, industrial workers, traders, manufacturers, teachers, layers, etc.The advocates of functional representation argue that this is a better way of obtaining representation for a cross-section of interests, demands and concerns of the people in the legislature. They also maintain that while in a territorial constituency the elected representative will belong to just one or the other occupational group, and would, therefore, tend to incline towards the interests of its functional group to the neglect of others, in the functional representation pattern, all major functions would get adequate representation.However if the functional representation principle is accepted as the basis of election to the Parliament and the legislature then the existing party system will not work because today a party represents many interest groups, and includes persons belonging to several functions & vocations. Therefore the method of territorial representation is preferred in almost all democratic countries.

Q.16.Describe any four functions of the Election Commission of India ?
Ans.16.The main functions of the Election Commission include:-
(i) To prepare, revise, update and maintain the list of voters for election to the Parliament, State Legislatures, Local bodies and to the office of the President and the Vice-president of India.
(ii)To conduct and supervise elections and by-election to the Parliament, state Legislatures, and to the Office of the President and the Vice-President of India.

(iii)To delimit constituencies for the election to the Parliament and to the State legislatures, and to allot a number of seats to each of them.

(iv) To fix the election proramme, including dates for nomination and scrunity of candidates, and date of elections; make arrangements for setting up necessary number of polling booths, lay down procedure for the exercise of secret ballot, appoint adequate number of returning officers, and declare results after the proper counting and scrutiny of votes.

Q.17 "Majorityis not enough, and unanimity is not required for the formation of Public Opinion? comment?
Ans.17 The latin phrase Vox Populi which means the voice of the people correctly defines what public opinion means. It is just the opinion of the common people. It is the organised and considered opinion of a section or many sections of the people, on any issue or problem of public concern. It need not be an expert opinion, a majority opinion or even a unanimous opinion.

The expression of Public opinion ensures democratic communication. Public opinion actually refers to the voice of the interested spectators of action. Thus there is no single opinion but multiplicity of opinions held by different groups and there are as many opinions as there are politically articulate groups each commanding its own public support of that opinion.

Q.18.Describe the composition and functions of a Municipal Corporation in India?
Ans.18 Municipal Corporation is the top most urban local Government . It has a statutory status and there is a separation of the legislative and the executive wing. The council of a corporation is headed by the Mayor and its standing committees constitute the deliberative wing which takes decisions . The Municipal Commissioner is the Executive Authority, responsible for enforcing these decisions. Collectively, the Council, headed by the Mayor, the standing Committees and the Municipal Commissioner make up the Corporation. The council consists of councillors who function for a period of five years. The seats are filled by direct elections. Some seats may be filled by nominations of persons having special knowledge or experience of Municipal Administration. There is also a provision for reservation of seats for SC/ST , women and backward classes.

The functions of Municipal Corporation are divided into 2 categories:-

(i) Obligatory functions - like supply of water, construction and maintenance of water works, supply of electricity, road transport services, construction, maintenance, naming and numbering of Public Streets, registration of birth and deaths etc.

(ii) Discretionary Functions - which the corporation may take up depending upon availability of financial resources. For e.g. construction of Public parks, gardens, Libraries, museums, theatres, stadiums, planting and care of trees on the roadside and elsewhere , relief of destitute and disabled persons, registration of marriages etc.

Q.19.Briefly explain with examples any two kinds of rights?
Ans.19 Rights are those claims which are recognised by the society, enforced by the state and aim at general good. A few rights necessary for our own age are:-

(i) Right to personal liberty - as it is embodied in the notion of rule of law. Article 21 of our constitution lays down that no one should be deprived of his " personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law" . The right to personal liberty does not mean absolute freedom to do anything . A criminal who is always obsessed by anti-social impulses cannot claim the right to personal liberty. The right to personal Liberty means that we should be punished only for a breach of a definite law and
only in a definite manner after a free trial. The detention of persons without a fair trial, in civilized societies, as under the provision of preventive detention is the very negation of the rights of individuals. However, in times of national emergencies or wars, security at all cost becomes the watchword.

(ii) Right to equality - which means equality of opportunity and equality before law and equal protection of laws.Right to equality does not mean perfect equality. It is only a system of proportions. It means that
everyone in society would have at least the minimum necessities for an honourable existence before someone can have superfluous wealth.

Equality before law means the absence of special privileges, and equal subjugation of all classes according to the procedure established by law and administered by the ordinary courts of the land. The state, however, can make classification, for the equality before law only means equality of treatment in equal circumstances.

Q.20.Describe any four important functions of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission in India?
Ans.20 Under the constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990, the Commission for SCs & STs will be required to do the following duties:-

(i) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the SCs and STs under the constitution or under any other law;

(ii)to enquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the SCsand STs.

(iii)to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the SCs and STs; and to evaluate the progress of their development under the union and any state;

(iv)to presesent to the President annually, and at such other times as the commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of these safeguards.

Q.21 Describe any four main tenets of Gandhism? What is the relevance of Gandhism today?
Ans.21 Gandhi left no set of doctrines or dogmas stated in set formula. He never claimed any finality about his views. Paradoxically he denied that there was anything as "Gandhism" . But there are a set of ideas in him which are original and which have exercised enormous influence on diffeent people. Some of his important ideas can be summarized under four heads.

(i) CRITQUE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION:- According to him western civilization was based on calculated rational, self - interest which was totally disruptive of human relationships. He was convinced that the pursuit of self-interest in the form of material interest would increase conflict in society. Gandhi also did not like the political democracy as it prevailed in the west. He dismissed liberal democracy as 'a fish market' and paraliament as a prostitute, in which people compete for their self interest. In Britain, the majority ruled. However, he wanted that in a democracy the weakest should have the same opportunity as the strongest.

(ii) FREEDOM AND THE STATE :- Gandhi looked upon an increase in the power of the state with fear as it was , according to him, detrimental to individuality . He believed in Swaraj a condition in which the
individual would be complete master of himself. He postulated a non-violent state based on the willing consent of the people and representing the near unanimity in society. He was a firm believer of decentralization of political and economic power which would make people responsible and non- violent and co-operative. To elaborate this he laid down the concept of Ramrajya as an ideal state which personified the idea of self-help, sacrifice and discipline.

(iii)FREEDOM AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION :- Gandhi upheld the idea of division of labour which, according to him, is the real wealth and which gives rise to money. He repudiated property which he thought was an obstacle in the realization of God. Thus he called upon capitalists and zamindars to become trustees who should regard tenants and workers as co-proprieters.

(iv) METHODS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION:- Gandhi emphasised the need to harness the forces of love as against hatred. He insisted on non-violence and satyagraha over the concepts of boycott and passive resistence. He stressed on the need to follow right means to reach the right end.

Part of Gandhi's Philosophy was utopian. For example, in advancing the idea of trusteeship, he did not realise the apalling selfishness of the capitalists. That is why people found it difficult to put it into practices. His philosophy of non-violence is an ideal to be followed by all the nations which is also coterminous with disarmament . Peace at the national and international level can be established only if violence is shunned and greater confidence is resumed in one another. However, this discipline is very difficult to follow in our daily life. Considering all life as sacred and allowing pests and insects to flourish would not be a sane thing to do.However, this does not mean that Gandhism has become redundant.
The system of Panchayati Raj and local self Government envisaged by Gandhi has become a reality in the present times. Moreover his theory of means and ends makes a lot of sense to the contemporary philosophers.

OR

Q.21 Socialism emerged as a reaction to the rise and development of capitalism. Discuss ?
Ans.21.By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Laissez faire doctrine had great following. Competition increased effeciency and wealth in society. But by the end of the nineteenth century, the fallacies of the doctrine became clear. The economic power passed into the hands of a few. The majority lived in conditions of dire poverty. They had no freedom of choice because they were completely dependent on their wages even for bare survival. The indusrialists were busy serving their own interest thus defeating the doctrine of Harmony of Interests. Prices were regulated by economic and not moral laws.

Competition defeated its own ends. Bigger organisations began to monopolise economic power, the smaller organizations were crushed out of existence. As competition increased, the system began to face crises. Cycles of boom and depression, known as tradecycles, became frequent. Unemployment was common phenomenon. Some of these reasons led Marx to make the prophesy that capitalism contained within itself seeds of its own destruction.

As a result of these miserable considitions the workers become hostile. Their intermingling with the others of their own type leads to the formation of class consciousness. This leads to the development of a militant trade union movement and leftist political parties which give a death blow to capitalism.

Q. 22.Explain the significance of the Right to Constitutional Remedies and Right Against Exploitation incorporated in the Indian Constitution ?
Ans.22 RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES:
Chapter - III of the Indian constitution pertaining to Fundamental rights has a measure of judicial protection and sanctity in the matter of enforcement of these rights. Under Article 32 every person has been given a right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part - III. Clause 2 of this article empowers the Superme Court to issue directions, or writs including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition,quo warranto, and certiorari. This right can not be suspended except when a proclamation of emergency is in force.

Thus it is through the Right to constitutional Remedies that the fundamental rights under the constitution have been made effective. Dr. B.R. ambedkar described this Artile (Art. 32) as "the very Soul of the
Constitution".

RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION:
Article - 23 of the Indian Constitution prohibits traffic in human beings and beggar and other forms of forced labour. However the state can impose compulsory service for Public purposes. Our Constitution, instead of using the word `slavery' used a more comprehensive expression " traffic in human beings" which includes a prohibition not only of slavery but also of traffic in women or children or the crippled, for immoral or other purposes. It also prohibits forced labour of any form which is similar to beggar.

Article 24 prohibits the employment of the children below 14 years of age in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous employment.
Thus forced labour is prohibited and children have been protected as a matter of fundamental rights.

OR
What are the six freedoms guaranteed under Artile 19 of the Indian Constitution? Under what circumstances can these be suspended?
Ans.22 Article 19 of the Constitution Guarantees six freedoms . These include the right:-
(a) to freedom of speech and expression
(b) to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) to form associations or unions
(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
(g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business:
[Article 19(1)(f) has been deleted]

No state can give or guarantee absolute or unlimited rights. Every right is subjected to reasonable limitations, the judge of reasonableness of restrictions is the Supreme Court of India.

With regard to limitations on freedom of speech and expression - the constitution imposes eight limitations. They relate to (i) defamation, (ii) Conempt of Court; (iii) decency or morality; (iv) Security of state; (v) friendly relations with foreign states; (vi) incitement to an offence; (vii) Public order; (viii) Maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.

With regard to limitations freedom of assembly - It is stipulated that any assembly must be peaceful and without arms.

As far as limitations on the right to form , associations or unions go the state can impose reasonable restrctions in the interest of public order or morality or the sovereignty or integrity of India. No group of individuals can enter into a criminal conspiracy or form any association detrimental to the Public peace. With regard to limitations on freedom of movement - the state is empowered to impose restrictions in the interests of the general public or for the protection of any Scheduled Tribe.

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS: There is no specific provision conferring freedom of the press on the Indian citizen. This freedom is included in the wider freedom of "expression" which is guaranteed by Article 19(1) (a) .The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of the press in the interests of "security of the state, the sovereignty and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, Public order decency or morality, or for the prevention of contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence".

Thus every major Fundamental Right is followed by certain limitations specified by the constitution itself.

Q. 23.Discuss the role of opposition parties in India?
Ans.23 The presence of opposition is the most distinctive characteristic of Parliamentary Democracy. If the Government represents the legitimised consent, then the opposition represents the legitimised dissent.

A good opposition can and should expose the mistakes, the shortcomings, the failures, the deviations, the betrayals and the lack of honesty and integrity of the government. However in the current phase of party politics, the ultimate purpose of the opposition remains to dislodge the party in power.

Till four decades after independence, it was generally the Congress (I) party that held the strings of power while BJP, CPI/CPI(M), Janta Dal etc. acted as opposition parties. A great hue and cry was generated by these opposition parties when the Hawala Scam, Bofors case and urea scam came to fore. They potrayed the corrupt activities of the government and demanded the placement of accountability for the misuse of public funds. The people got to know about the misgivings of the government and voted it out of power. In the current scenario, when the National Democratic Alliance is ruling the Government, the Congress (I) and other leftist parties are playing the same role. Everyone is well aware of the BJP agenda and the RSS influence on it. When the BJP government in Gujarat sought to remove the ban on civil servants to join RSS, it was the successful compaign led by the opposition parties in the Parliament that forced the govt. to withdraw the order . Thus their Hindutva designs were curbed the opposition acted in a very responsible manner and upheld the idea of secularism by curbing the communal forces. Besides this it is due to the pressure of the opposition that the government was forced to make an enquiry into the killings of fathers and nuns and ransacking of various Christian institutions and churchs. If it wasn't for the opposition, the government would have dismissed these incidents as general law and order problem. The responsible attitude of the opposition was also noted during the recent hijack of IC-814. The opposition stood by the government during its time of crises and decided to endorse whatever the government decides. However, it did criticize the fact that the aircraft was allowed to leave the Amritsar Airport.

Thus, the opposition parties have done a commendable role in showing the other side of the picture to the common man who lacks resources and intelligence to decide what's right and what's wrong. However, it has always not been so. These opposition parties have also tried to disloge the government from power as was seen in the case of Sitaram Kesri and J. Jayalalita. Thus the role of opposition parties in India since Independence has been mixed.


OR
Write a brief note on the programmes and polices of the Congress Party of India?
Ans.23.The Congress party since independence has been the most pervasive political force in the Country. It has been a macro political system, holding together micro sub-systems comprising factions, forums, groups, lobbies, coteries, etc., which constantly interact on the political processes of the Congress, providing it simultaneously a multi-caste, multicommunity and multi-class base.

As regards the political issues, the Congress (I) aims to give power to the people by bringing back to Parliament the Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika bills. It also aims to preserve the Counry's unity, integrity and to thwart efforts to undermine its secular heritage. It also pledges to bring sweeping reforms in judiciary to ensure quick and inexpensive justice. Congress wants to work to maintain communal peace and tranquility and to foster understanding and amity between different communities.

On the economic front, the Congress(I) aims to pursue an employment - oriented development strategy, to reorient public investment to promote the growth and expansion of employment - intensive economic acivities. Jawahar Yojna and Nehru Rozgar Yojna will be implemented more vigorously, and more funds will be implemened more viogrously, and more funds will be provided to facilitate this. It also seeks to consolidate Harijan and Adivasi Welfare Programme and rain SC and ST communities in modern skills and technology. Congress (I) also promises to introduce specific social security schemes in the unorganised sector to provide medical treatment, maternity benefit as well as old age pension. It gives top priority to developing export capability in a wide range of industries to ensure foreign exchange earning needed to finance industrial expansion and modernization.

With reference to social issues, it aims to work for the emancipation of women and their socio-economic advancement, especially of poor women in rural areas, by adopting a wholistic approach to all their problems. It also seeks to increase the access of low income groups to instituional financing and housing schemes.

As regards the foreign policy issues, Congress party adheres to the policy of non-alignment based on the principles of sovereign equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs and also seeks to maintain friendly relations with all countries. Congress party wants to pursue an action plan for promoting the prospects of a nuclear weapon free and a non-violent world. It extends its support for the legitimate demand for a Palestinian homeland.

Q. 24. What is the difference between 'Regionalism" and "Separatism"? What are the factors responsible for the growth of regionalism in India?
24.The phenomenon of regionalism starts with the identification of parts of territory as separate regions.
In other words a region is a profound sociological fact reflected in its being treated as the nucleous of social aggregation for multiple purposes. S.R. Maheshwari points out that a particular territory is set apart as a region over a period of time, when different variables operate in different degrees. These variables may be geography, topography, religion, language, usages and customs, socio-economic and political stages of development , a common way of living and more than any thing else, a widely prevalent sentiment of togetherness. In general, regionalism is manifested through four different ways viz., demand of people of certain areas for secession rom the Indian Union, demand of people of certain areas for separate statehood, demand of people of certain union territories for full fledged statehood, and the demand of certain people for favourable settlement in inter-state disputes.

However separatism is the extreme form of regionalism. Sometimes people of a certain area may start believing that they do not belong to the integrated whole and have a separate identity. They thus start demanding sucession rights and when they are not provided, they take recource to violent and terrorist activities. The case of North - Eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir provides a vivid example of separatist movements in India.

Regionalism is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The factors responsible for the growth and development of regionalism can be divided into three broad categories i.e. cultural, economic and political.


CULTURAL ASPECTS:
India is a multiethnic, multireligious and multi-lingual counry. Therefore the apprehension of cultural minorities of their being absorbed in majority culture and hence a need for the effective protection is a natural and universal phenomena. These minorities seek protection for their cultural values against deliberately hostile actions by the majority in the field of schools and languages so much as the desire for protection against the effects on their culture of natural, economic and social developments. Cultural minorities are only too aware that failure to maintain themselves politically, economically and socially leads to an erosion of cultural identity. Hence the demands for Jharkhand, Uttrakhand, Chattisgarh and Vidharba came up.

ECONOMIC ASPECTS:
In Indian situation there are three aspects of economic problem - slow development , regional imbalances and paradoxes of adopted path of development.

Scarce resources and disproportionately heavy demands create competition among individuals . The conditions of the masses have deteriorated and they have started feeling that perhaps, benefits of
development may be difficult to attain at natinal level and have started looking towards local and regional level leadership. Regional economic imbalances which the politcal elite ingeneral and the ruling elite in
particular have contributed is no small measures also breed regionalism.

POLITICAL ASPECTS :
The Indian nation-state at the time of independence was created without a prior confrontation between the modern leadership and the authoritative traditional groups helped to preserve the old leadership patterns. Inspite of the complete domination of the Congress party country-wide central power could not be consolidated at the expense of local authorities. Within the plural society the sudden arrival of the expanding activities of government, the dispersion of power, and the democratisation of power have resulted in the growth of popular participation in local, state and national politics.

OR
What are the causes of the growth of communalism in India ? How can we curbit?
Ans.24 Communalism in India was born, nurtured and promoted, by the British imperialism as a deliberate design to saw dissensions. It served the colonial administration to divide and rule and, therefore, the prevailing religious differences were first used to project the social and cultural variations, and then to promote political divisions by treating Indians basically not as Indians but as members of religious communities. The type of politics approved, tolerated and encouraged by the British imperialism was only "communal Politics". a voter was classified as a Hindu or a Muslim, etc. and so was a candidate and a representative.
This was provided for in Minto Morley reforms and Government of India Act. 1935 . It is in this historical context that communalism came to acquire the meaning of being opposed to national identity of being
against the secularisation process, of being too narrowly and negatively attached to one's own religious community and that too essentially for political benefits. These communal groups started considering
themselves as separate nations. The partition of India followed:

The seeds which were sown by the British has not been uprooted in independent India. Communal organizations like Shiv Sena , RSS and its outgrowth BJP have come up. The minority community does not feel safe under these circumstances. Incidents like Babri Masjid demolition, Delhi Riots of 1984, and the recent attacks on the Christian Community are a deathblow to the secular character of India. There is a need for immediate action or else the crises will deepen further.

In our struggle against communalism we should mobilise a wide cross - section of our people including genuine religious persons, women, youth, professional roups, especially media persons, because communalism is both anti-national and anti-human.

First and foremost there is an urgent need to recognise at the individual, collecive and national levels that communalism is the biggest threat to the basic values of our life, to the working of our state, and to the new evolving civilization, because it is inmical to the vision of a secular and democratic India that we had promised to ourselves. This realisation should become an integral part of our consciousness.

Some of the possible steps to combat communalism are:-
(i) De-recognition of parties which by their policies and practices encourage or promote communalism;
(ii) Punishment to police personnel found guilty of neglecting their duty, or encouraging communal violence;
(iii)Punishment to concerned officers in a locality or district found guilty of dereliction of duty in controlling communal violence or threat of violence;
(iv) Removal of communal orientation in text books and reading material prepared for schools;
(v) Instructions to TV, radio and media to avoid coverage of news and views likely to promote communal prejudice and hatred.

Q. 25 Discuss India's changing relations with the U.S.A.?
Ans.25 The relations between India - the world's largest democracy and US - world's most powerful democracy were not as (strong) close as they should be expected to be fill a few years back.India's non-aligned stand and later "special friendship" with the erstwhile USSR made Indo-US relations not-so-cordial. Though US continued to provide India with humanitarian and other developmental assistance, its main ally in the South Asian region was Pakistan. The impact of this on Indo-US relations was negative and there was a very visible tilt towards Pakistan during the cold war era.

The collapse of Soviet Union and the end of cold war kindled hopes of closer ties between US and India but these could not be realised to their maximum. The relations which kept on mproving through the 90s
took a sharp about turn with the Pokhran tests in 1998. Economic sanctions were slapped on India and assistance except humanitarian were ended. India was asked to sign the CTBT at the earliest. India
promised to be a responsible nuclear power but that was not enough .

The year 1999 saw the short scale limited Kargil Conflict between two new nuclear powers - India and Pakistan. India's restraint was appreciated the world over while Pakistan's claim of non-involvement was never believed. The US stand now was more of parity between the two rather than any tilt towards Pakistan.

The overthow of Nawaz Sharif and installation of a military government pushed US further away from Pakistan and also closer to India. US tried to pressurize Pakistan to go back on the road to democracy to which it did not comply. Meanwhile ministerial level talks continued between India and US to prepare for the crucial Clinton visit to the subcontinent.

The Clinton visit in March 2000 was highly successful as far as India was concerned. Economic sanctions are being slowly lifted. Though India did not agree to sign the CTBTsome understanding was reached . India was projected as a thriving democracy on the road of development with the potential of becoming an IT superpower. Now preparations are on for PM Vajpayee's scheduled visit to the US in September 2000.

US is India's largest trading partner but our trade relations have been marred by tough US Import laws e.g. Super 301 etc. Since liberalisation in early 1990s US investment in Indian economy has been substantial. Of late trade relations have been cordial with Indian Software Indusry becoming very important for US's new knowledge based economy.


OR
Discuss briefly India's role in the non-aligned movement?
Ans.25.India,under Nehru, was the first Country to have adopted the Policy of non-alignment . India's policy is positive or dynamic neutralism in which a country acts independently and decides its policy on each issue on its merit. Nehru was committed to western concept of liberalism and democracy. But he did not approve of the Military alliances. He was impressed by socialism and strongly advocated the idea of democratic socialism. Nehru was a combination of a socialist and a liberal democrat. India was opposed to the very idea of power bloc and hence its policy of non-alignment was not to promote a third bloc, but to ensure freedom of decision - making of the decolonised states.

India's policy of non-alignment was against the status quo situation in international politics. That meant opposition of colonialism, imperialism, racial discrimination and now of neo-colonialism. India wants a world free of these evils. Secondly , non-alignment rejects the concept of superiority of Super Powers. It advocates Sovereign equality of all states. Thirdly, non-alignment encourages friendly relations among countries. It is opposed to he alliances that divide the world into groups of states, or power blocs. Non-alignment advocates peaceful settlement of international disputes and rejects the use of force. It favours complete destruction of nuclear weapons and pleads for comprehensive disarmament. It supports all efforts to strengthen the United Nations.

India's policy of non-alignment emphasises the Social and Economic problems of mankind. India has been fully supporting the demand for a new international economic order so that the unjust and unbalanced
existing economic order may be changed into a new and just economic order.

India's campaign against the policy of aparthied followed in South Africa till a few years back is well known. The world-wide condemnation of such discrimination gave it a deathblow.

India's efforts in calling for a nuclear weapon free world has made history by the way of blocking the NPT and the CTBT. All said and done, India's role in non-aligned movement has been commendable.