CBSE Set Qa1 Political Science Sample Test Papers For Class 12th for students online
any two points of criticism of Fascism. (2 marks)
Ans. Fascism can be criticised on the following grounds:-
(a) Fascism supported the idea of a totalitarian state. It was anti-humanitarian and sought to destroy some of the most cherished human values - rights and interests, freedom and equality in the name of the supremacy of the nation state.
(b) Fascism encourages violence and terror and has a love for war. War is not regarded as inhuman by the fascists - they regard it as an essential exercise to keep the states healthy and fit. They, thus, disregarded the path of peace as well as international laws. This contributed to the origin of the second World War.
Q2. What is meant by coercive power of the state? Is it unlimited?
Ans. Coercive power of the state means the power that the state possesses to punish those individuals who do not abide by its laws. However this power of the state is not unlimited. There are many groups and associations within the society which act as limitations on the exercise of the state's powers. Moreover, the likelihood of a revolt in society is also to be kept in mind by those who are enthrusted with the task of ruling public opinion.
Q3. Mention any two Socialist Directive Principles of state policy. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. The Indian state is based on certain socialist principles which are evident in the Directive Principles of state policy. These are:-
(a) Article 39 - observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
(b) Article 41 - lays down that effective steps should be taken to make the right to work a reality. It also stresses that education should be provided to all concerned. Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.
Q4. What do you mean by Natural rights? Mention any one such right. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. Liberals like Locke, have propounded the theory of Natural rights. Natural rights according to them are those rights which are inherent in man and cannot be taken away from him. These rights precede the state and are an obligation on the state. For eg., the right to life is a natural right of a human being.
Q5. Give any two arguments in favour of universal adult franchise. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. One of the major goals in the long-drawn struggle for democracy in the world, has been the acceptance of the principle of universal adult franchise as the basis of obtaining the consent of the governed. This has the following aspects:
(1) In the actual setting up of the representative institutions in a democracy, this principle is the assertion and affirmation of the principles of liberty and equality of all citizens, irrespective of their caste, creed, sex, domicile, educational level and property status.
(2) It ensures mass participation in the political decision-making process for electing representatives.
This ensures the constitution of a democratic government.
Q6. What is an election manifesto? Write its any one advantage. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. Election manifestos reveal the theoretical and ideological position of the parties. It places on record their major formulations. Through the election manifestos, the political parties give their national perspective, programme of action and solutions to outstanding problems. Thus it becomes easier for the voter to identify as to which party stands for which programme and hence cast his vote accordingly.
Q7. Mention any two civic functions of Gram Panchayat.
Ans. Gram Panchayat is the first executive tier of the Panchayati Raj system having jurisdiction over a village or a group of villages. Its civic functions include:-
(a) upkeeping of roads and streets, culverts and bridges, maintenance of drainage and sanitation, wells and tanks.
(b) provision of water supply for domestic use and supervision of street lightening etc.
Q8.Mention any two factors that encourage communalism. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. Communalism is basically an ideology of political allegiance to a religious community as a primary and decisive group in the polity. It is a bane on Indian society and can be encouraged by the following means:-
(a) Punishing innocent members of a community today due to certain acts of other members of the same community in the past.
(b) Inciting communal animosity and hate by word of mouth or publication. This can be done by using one's privileged position in the profession and society, especially as a journalist or politician.
Q9. What is meant by the poverty Line? (2 marks)
Ans. By poverty-line we mean an income level below which human beings cannot provide for their basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. In India, the level of poverty line has been determined on the basis of the daily intake of calories. According to the Planning Commission, the recommended nutritional requirements of 2400 calories per person per day for rural areas and 2100 for urban areas, is the minimum.
Q10. Mention any two functions of the Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Commission. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes is expected to:-
(a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the SCs & STs under the Constitution or under any other law;
(b) to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the SCs & STs and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any state.
Define law and give its any three important sources. (1+3=4)
Ans. A law is a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all. A few sources of law are listed below:-
(a) Customs - The well-established practices of the people in every community develop because of the utility inherent in them. In due course, a practice becomes a usage which after some time hardens into a custom.
(b) Adjudication - As the society developed and its organisations multiplied, new disputes arose.These were solved by the "wisest men of the community". The decisions of these men formed precedents for future guidance and they came to be known as case laws. The judges of the highest courts in all the countries are important law makers. They interpret and declare law and in that process make new laws.
(c) Legislation - It means placing of a specific rule on the statute book of the land. It reflects the will of the state as determined by the law making organs. The codification of law helps in narrowing down uncertainties.
Q12. What do you understand by 'protective discrimination'? Give any two examples pertaining to it. (2+1+1=4)
Ans. Protective discrimination is the principle of preferential treatment or positive discrimination in favour of those sections of society who otherwise face discrimination and oppression, to achieve genuine equality. The purpose here is not merely to do some good to the weaker sections but to bring them in the mainstream social order. Thus, in the context of the constitution's commitment to the equality of all citizens, provision was made for protective discrimination in favour of certain classes or groups. Thus, the idea of reservations was accepted through provisions to fundamental rights for equality itself mainly in Article 15(4) on special provision for the advancement of "socially and educationally backward classes of citizens" and Article 16(4) on reservations of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which in the opinion of the state is not adequately represented in its services.
Q13. Explain the changing concept of state activity. (4)
Ans. The 19th century has seen major social changes brought about by science and technology. All these changes require new perspectives on national sovereignty, in the whole apparatus of the state and government in the control of economic activity. In the 19th century, the main function of state was understood to be to provide stability and security and also to provide support to private enterprises at home and abroad.
But today the state's functions include law and order, making of foreign policy and management and administration of vast services and industries. This expansion in the role of the state has been a result of the industrial revolution, rise of the nation state and mass participation in policies.
When the state structure was not fully developed, people did not look to the state to create conditions necessary for development. But now people expect that the state would alter inequalities arising out of the distribution of land, wealth, income, race and colour. Thus the state should construct dams, conserve environment, create a net-work of canals, promote and establish industries, control monopoly, introduce a system of taxation and establish an education system to ensure development of human powers.
Q14. How do Directive Principles of State Policy help in establishing a welfare state in India? (4)
Ans. The ideal of the welfare state is embodied in the Directive Principles given in the Indian constitution. These socialist dectrines are based on democracy and believe in gradualism. While believing in individual liberty, they wish to prevent the excesses of the individual's role in society by restraining his activities from causing harm to others and the society as a whole. The Directive Principles envisaged banishment of poverty by the multiplication of the National wealth and resources and an equal distribution of it. They also require the state to provide work for all, improve the living
conditions of the common man, provide sufficient food and clothing to all, provide relief for the ailing and pension for the old and educate all the children.
Q15. Distinguish between civil rights and political rights. Give one example of each. (2+1+1=4)
Ans. In order to make the rights comprehensive, many countries offer guarantees against economic insecurity and exploitation, opportunities for free education and many other social facilities. It is through the rights recognised and maintained by each state that the states are recognised and differentiated. Thus right to life, liberty, work, education, property, speech and press, assembly, religion, family and equality etc. may be described as civil rights.
On the other hand, political rights are possessed by those persons whom the state permits to share in the legal expression and administration of its sovereign power. They give an equal opportunity to the individual, if he is worthy of it, to take part in the political affairs of his community and influence the policy of his government. An example of political right may be the right to vote - this right is the product of democracy. It means that every adult citizen has the right to express his opinion by casting a vote at the time of election in favour of the persons he desires to run the government. It is contended that the right to vote should be as wide as possible and based on one man, one vote.
An example of civil right may be the right to life - It is the most fundamental of all rights, as it is the very core of humanity. It also means the right to defend oneself against attack. The right to life is safeguarded by law. Punishment is seen as the logical consequence of the anti-social acts of those who violate laws.
Q16. Explain briefly simple majority system. Point out one of its major shortcomings. (3+1=4)
Ans. A simple majority system basically means that who so ever gets more votes than the others, gets elected. The election results in India are declared on the basis of simple majority system.It is simple and avoids the hastles involved in the proportional representation system. Moreover, it shows what most of the people want. However, the minority opinion is pinned down, which is its major drawback. In a democracy the majority as well as the minority should feel secure and its rights and opinions should be respected which does not completely happen in a simple majority system.
Q17. List out any two recognised regional political parties along with their election symbols. (4)
Ans. Two regional parties are:
(a) The DMK - Rising sun
(b) Rashtriya Janata Dal - Lamp
Q18. Describe the composition of a Municipal Corporation. Mention its any one obligatory function. (3+1=4)
Ans. A Municipal Corporation has a statutory status as it is created by an Act of the state legislature or of the parliament in case of a union territory. The municipal corporation is a popular body that provides representation to local people. Most of its members are directly elected on the basis of adult franchise. The council of a corporation is headed by the Mayor and its standing committees constitute the deliberative wing which takes decisions. The Municipal Commissioner is the executive authority, responsible for enforcing these decisions. Collectively, the council, headed by the Mayor, the standing committees and the Municipal Commissioner make up the corporation. Some seats of the council may be filled by nominations of persons having special knowledge or experience of municipal administration. Some seats may also be reserved for SC/ST, women and backward castes.
The obligatory functions of the Municipal Corporation may include supply of water, construction & maintenance of water works, supply of electricity, road transport services, construction, maintenance, naming & numbering of public streets and registration of births & deaths.
Q19. What do you understand by regional imbalances? (4)
Ans. Regional imbalances refer to the deep differences that exists between one state and the other and even between one region and the other within some states, by way of per capita income, rate of literacy, technology, industrialization, mode of communication and agrarian development etc.
Often, regional parties exploit the situation by informing the people that the union government is biased towards particular regions. This has given rise to regionalism and the resultant growth of regional parties. This also leads to the demand for creation of new states like Jharkhand, Uttrakhand, Chattisgarh and Vidarbha.
Apart from a sense of deprivation in the neglected states or regions, the development efforts and benefits concentrated in certain areas or states have also given birth to vested interests, particularly in the rural parts of the developed states. For instance, in areas where the Green Revolution was introduced and has been successful, the new rich farmers class has become
economically and politically important. Not only are they trying to influence the policies at state level and through that at national level, but of late have started organising and directly participating in politics on a class basis.
Another aspect of unbalanced development is that because of development only in limited areas the work force from other states and areas keep on flocking to the developed areas in search of jobs and employment. This affects the cultural harmony of those areas by creating apprehensions among the linquistic and cultural groups about their position.
As a whole the existence and continuation of regional disparities do not allow either a national economy or a national politics. It creates different levels and patterns of politics. It also gives rise to inter-state, inter-region and centre-state disputes and conflicts. The need to adopt a developmental model for balanced development therefore is very important.
Q20. What is planning? Explain the composition of the Planning Commission of India. (1+3=4)
Ans. Planning is creating a programme for action for a particular period for achieving certain specific progressive developmental goals. For developing countries, planning has been considered a prerequisite for balanced socio- economic development and a strategy for making the best possible use of available natural manpower and financial as well as infrastructural resources. At present, when the emphasis is on market forces and liberalization, the talk of economic planning might appear to be outdated, but, considering the state of economic development in most developing countries, the co-existence of liberalization and planning is most likely to continue for a long time.
The task of planning in India has been taken up by the Planning Commission. By convention, the Prime Minister of India is the chairman of the Planning Commission. However, since he is only a part-time Chairman and is unable to devote adequate time to its functioning and performance, the deputy chairman of the Commission is its de-facto executive head. The
Minister of State for Planning & Programmes Implementation is also a member of the Planning Commission. A few Cabinet Ministers have also been its members for the past several years. Since there are no well-defined regulations on the membership of the Planning Commission, its structural pattern has changed from time to time. The number of ministers and the whole- time expert members has never been fixed. This flexibility has, perhaps, facilitated the functioning of the Commission, in tackling the emergent and the more urgent issues of economic change and social development.
Q21. 'The Welfare state is the ideal of modern liberalism.' Comment on this statement. (8)
Ans. As the negative aspects of classical liberalism began to show face, this doctrine was modified by people like J.S. Mill & T.H. Green. They believed that the interests of the individual were tied to social interests. They advocated that each individual was entitled to equal opportunity. Thus the problem of distribution, according to them, demanded an active interference of the state in the economic life of the society.The state was expected to enforce standards of cleanliness & health. It was expected to ensure that large masses of humanity did not have to live in conditions of poverty and squalor. The State was expected to bring about conditions in which there were chances of equal development of all.
The Society must provide opportunity not merely for increase of wealth but also for the development of the total human personality. Thus the concept of welfare state emerged out of this thinking. In 1930s, Roosevelt initiated the New Deal Programmes on similar lines.
The welfare state thus tried to make education widely available. It regulated hours of work, wages and working conditions of labour, tried to curb employment of children in factories and monopolistic tendencies in economy. It was accepted that enlargement of economic liberty was necessary
for a proper enjoyment of political or civil liberty by all. There was a change in the liberal concept of justice.
It was at this time that John Keynes talked about social insurance which was a part of the policy of social progress. While the state should try to secure rational minimum for all, it should leave enough room for voluntary action. In India, the Mahanalobis report followed much the same policy. Tentative, piecemeal adhoc attempts to change the economy lost their appeal. People began to favour more comprehensive plans. They began to expect the state to work for full employment and planned economic growth, what Roosevelt described as "freedom from want" and Indira Gandhi as "Garibi Hatao". The state tried to correct social and cultural injustices. The ideal of the
welfare state is thus the development of the ideals of human equality, liberty and justice.
Q22. Examine the place of fundamental duties in the constitution of India. Mention any four such duties. (4+4=8)
Ans. The fundamental duties were incorporated by the 42nd amendment and added to chapter IV of the constitution. The proponents of the Amendments seem to have thought that the incorporation of these duties was necessary to emphasise the obligations of the citizens in the social contract. Basically the fundamental duties have been incorporated with the purpose of making the
citizens patriotic, help them to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation, protect its sovereigrity & integrity, help the state in performing its diverse duties and promote ideals of harmony, unity, common brotherhood and religious tolerance. These ideals are the cornerstone of the constitution.
However, like the Directive Principles of State sPolicy, these duties are also non-justiceable. Some critics, therefore, question the wisdom of incorporating them in the Constitution. However, they are a constant reminder to us of the national goals as well as basic norms of political order. They may inspire us to inculcate in ourselves a sense of social responsibility.
They may not have much legal significance but they do have a symbolic value is as much as they emphasise the popular aspirations of the time as expressed through the legislative will.
These duties require the citizens-
(i) to abide by and respect the constitution, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
(ii) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(iii) to defend the country and render national service when required;
(iv) to promote the common brotherhood of all people in India and renounce any practice derogatory to the dignity of women.
Q23. What are interest groups? Distinguish between political parties and interest groups. Mention political parties and interest groups. Mention any two Indian interest groups relating to industry and commerce. (3+3+2=8)
Ans. Modern pluralistic society consists of large numbers of economic, occupational, religious, possibly ethnic, and other groups in support of different educational and cultural activities. In an open society, interest groups are permitted freely to organise themselves. They will tend to bring their influence to bear on the machinery, the institutions and process of government. They formulate demands, press for concrete specific interests or material advantages demanded by their members, oppose intended action which they deem objectionable, express or articulate the views of some part of public opinion or public issues, or campaign for new policies or even a new society.
What differentiates political parties from interest groups is the breadth and variety of their followings and the orientation of their programmes. Political parties embrace the whole nation and subscribe to the programmes which target the interests of the nation. Interest groups, on the other hand, tend to emphasise special areas of interests, giving them sharper and more detailed
expression than can be done by political parties. Interest groups have a sectional or localised focus, while the emphasis of political parties is upon achieving the organisation of opinion on all public issues, internal and external. An interest group performs the function of interest articulation while a party is an aggregation of interests. Political parties contest elections and campaign to win. Interest groups do not contest elections and have no programmes to offer.
They are oriented towards influencing policies, especially on the issues that touch them closely. They lend their support to the parties that espouse their cause, but they do not permanently associate with or support one party.
The two interest groups relating to industry and commerce are Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Confederation of Indian Industries (CII).
Q23. What do you understand by public opinion? Describe the main hinderances in the formation of sound public opinion. (8)
Ans. Organised and considered opinion of a section or many sections of the people, on any issue or problem of public concern, is called public opinion. Public opinion is thus an organisation of separate individual judgments. A public opinion must be public rather than individual or sectional. And it must really be an opinion firmly and convincingly held. It need not be the majority opinion, nor is unanimity required. The true worth of public opinion is that while the minority may not share the majority opinion, but they must feel by conviction, not by fear or coercion, to accept it as it aims at the good of all and no sectional interests are involved.
Hindrances in the formation of a sound public opinion are:-
(1) ILLITERACY:- A considerable portion of Indian population is illiterate. Illiteracy is a bane to sound public opinion. Illiterate people are ignorant of hard facts and get easily swayed by political speeches and populist measures of the politicians.
(2) LACK OF REAL LIBERTY:- The high sounding rights that adorn our constitution are not enjoyed in reality by one and all. The lower strata of the society which cannot even make both ends meet cannot comment on what's going on around them. Moreover, the presence of mafias and goonda elements in our society do not allow the people to formulate sound public opinion.
Q24. Explain the policies and programmes of the Bharatiya Janta Party. (8)
Ans. To begin with, BJP tried to project itself different from the Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS). So, while permitting dual membership with RSS they proclaimed that their ideal was "Gandhian Socialism". However, the programme of the BJP was vague. For eg. it said that the directive principles calling for the amelioration of the economic conditions could be effected without touching the Fundamental Rights. However in 1985, the BJP National executive abandoned Gandhian socialism and returned to the old Sangh concept of "Integrated humanism". Since then, its main plank has been the criticism of minoritism allegedly followed by the Congress governments. In that it has also been attacking the prevailing concepts of secularism and composite culture. In the economic field the party is critical of socialistic rhetorics and controlled economy.
It is headstrong about the fact that the nation's unity and progress can be best ensured if the Hindus assert themselves more vigorously. It demands to ban cow slaughter and above all building of "Ram Temple" after the demolition of "Babri Masjid". It also talks about the abolition of Article 370 of the Constitution which gives a special status to Jammu and Kashmir.
Establishment of a uniform civil code is also on its agenda.
On the economic front, BJP lays emphasis on "Swadeshi" to encourage Indian industry and production as against multinational or foreign companies. It promises to lessen the burden of indirect taxation on the general mass of the people. At the same time, it resolves to raise the income tax exemption limit. Then the BJP commits itself to allocating 60% of annual plan funding to the rural and agricultural sector.
It social fields also the BJP promises justice to all sections. It has accepted the principle of reservation on caste basis. It promises 33% reservation of seats in the Parliament and State legislatures for women. The party continues with the ideal of nationalism based on "Hindutava". The BJP is committed to the concept of one nation, one people, one culture. It commits
itself to the principle of "Sarva Dharam Sambhav" ensuring pride and security for all sections of society irrespective of their religious identity and no favour to any one religous or ethnic group.
In brief, the BJP claims that the party's programme is based on five principles:
(a) Nationalism and national integration
(b) Commitment to democracy
(c) Positive Secularism
(d) Humansim, that is economy based on Bread, with freedom
(e) Value-based politics.
BJP did emerge as the single largest party in the 1999 elections however bowing to the pressures of coalition politics, it had to compromise on a few issues. Construction of Ram Temple, abolition of Article 370, and establishment of uniform civil code have been kept on the backburner.
Q24. Explain the factors which have played vital role in determining the pattern of Indian Party System. (8)
Ans. In view of the fragmented nature of Indian Society and widespread ideological differences with regard to future of India, right after independence there were a number of political parties ranging from communists to communalists and from laisse-faire to socialist camps. However, for quite
some years the Congress remained the Chief party representing a historical consensus & enjoying a continuing basis of support and thrust. This was the so called one-party dominance or the Congress System [in the words of Rajni Kothari]. 1967 elections marked the beginning of the decline of one - party dominance when Congress failed to secure majority in eight states.
Further in 1977 , as a result of victory of a non-congress party at the centre for the first time, many scholars and observers opined that Parliamentary democracy in India had matured and a two party system or close to it was in the process. The hope, however, was shortlived; for the Janta Party was primarily a coalition formed together, for the survival of non-congress parties. After attaining that goal the party's leadership did not make serious efforts for a long term party building process.
Result was that internal bickerings and factionalism in the party continued & tarnished its overall reputation.
In 1980 elections, the Indian Party system was again back to one-party dominant system. However, it was a dominance because of failure of national - level non-congress parties & united regional support bases of regional parties. However 1989 elections saw the upcoming of a multi-party system at the centre. Thus a formal coalition government was formed at the centre. This system got further consolidated in the elections of 1996, 1998 and 1999. The current National Democratic Alliance which is the ruling government today constitutes of more that 15 parties which have come together formally to form the government. Hence not only the All - India parties but also the regional parties form the government at the centre.
Thus, the nature of the party system depicts a pattern of steady fragmentation of political forces reflecting social fragmentation and regional division of the country. Most parties have turned out to be coalitions of elites loosely tied together by personal interests and short-term goals rather than by ideological or pragmatic commitment or long-range objectives. One consequence of this is that the basic principle of party organisation is either personality or region, not policies .
Another consequence of this is that nearly all parties have been beset with factionalism & internal dissensions leading many a times to splits.
Arising out of this is also the fact that there is hardly any party that is not under the control of an autocratic leader. The constitutions of most of the parties are Presidential & the committees are nominated by the President. Adhocism is the norm everywhere. No party has evolved reliable mechanism & workable procedures for managing internal conflicts.
It can thus be said that party system in India has not yet reached that stage of development where ideologies are strong, parties are able to structure meaningful electoral issues & parliamentary opposition successfully channelise popular opposition. The overwhelming importance of personal &
ascriptive factors rather than secular & rational factors have contributed to the absence of ideological boundaries between most of the parties and a blurring of them.
Q25. Critically examine India's relations with the United states of America (U.S.A.) (8)
Ans. The relations between India - the world's largest democracy & US - world's most powerful democracy were not as (strong) close as they should be expected to be fill a few years back.India's non-aligned stand & later "special friendship" with the erstwhile USSR made Indo-US relations not-so-cordial. Though US continued to provide India with humanitarian and other developmental assistance, its main ally in the South Asian region was Pakistan. The impact of this on Indo-US relations was negative and there was a very visible tilt towards Pakistan during the cold war era.
The collapse of Soviet Union & the end of cold war kindled hopes of closer ties between US & India but these could not be realised to their maximum. The relations which kept on improving through the 90s took a sharp about turn with the Pokhran tests in 1998. Economic sanctions were slapped on India and assistance except humanitarian were ended. India was asked to sign the CTBT at the earliest. India promised to be a responsible nuclear power but that was not enough .
The year 1999 saw the short scale limited Kargil Conflict between two new nuclear powers - India and Pakistan. India's restraint was appreciated the world over while Pakistan's claim of non-involvement was never believed. The US stand now was more of parity between the two rather than any tilt towards Pakistan.
The overthow of Nawaz Sharif and installation of a military government pushed US further away from Pakistan & also closer to India. US tried to pressurize Pakistan to go back on the road to democracy to which it did not comply. Meanwhile ministerial level talks continued between India & US to prepare for the crucial Clinton visit to the subcontinent.
The Clinton visit in March 2000 was highly successful as far as India was concerned. Economic sanctions are being slowly lifted. Though India did no agree to sign the CTBT some understanding was reached. India was projected as a thriving democracy on the road of development with the potential of becoming an IT superpower. Now preparations are on for PM Vajpayee's scheduled visit to the US in September 2000.
US is India's largest trading partner but our trade relations have been marred by tough US Import laws e.g. Super 301 etc. Since liberalisation in early 1990s US investment in Indian economy has been substantial. Of late trade relations have been cordial with Indian Software Indusry becoming very important for US's new knowledge based economy.
Q25. Evaluate India's contribution to the United Nations in its efforts for maintaining world peace. (8)
Ans. India, which is a primary members of the UN, even when it was not independent, had always taken keen interest in all the activities of the UN; hence its role in this unique activity is inevitable. At present when India is making tremendous efforts to play a more important role in the UN, through
the acquisition of a permanent seat in the Security Council, it becomes pertinent to analyse its contribution towards all the UN activities in general and its role in peace-keeping in particular.
Significant role played by India in the UN peace-keeping operations is evident from its following activities. Firstly, India, despite its limitations in terms of military and financial fields, took part in maximum number of UN peace keeping operations. Its involvement and conviction towards these activities can be gauged from the fact that even while it was engaged in war with its neighbours [1962 & 1965], it supplied troops for such UN activities.
Secondly, it also provided leadership to some important missions, such as Sinai (1956-57), Yemen (1963), Cyprus (1964), Namibia (1989) etc. where it provided force commanders. Besides, its officers served as members of supervisory commissions, military adviser to Secretary General and observers in no. of UN activities.
Thirdly, India has also helped the global organization in developing and conceptualising the framework of UN peace-keeping. Through its active participation in the debates it tried its best to highlight the anomalies associated with this concept. Simultaneously, at present it is making
all out efforts to finalise the norms of this framework in the changed context of global order.
Fourthly, despite its poor economic conditions India has cleared all its dues to the UN pool in contrast to the major powers who have yet to pay huge share of their contribution towards this end.
Finally, India is even concerned about the future responsibilities in this context. Visualising the growing number of peace-keeping operations there is always a great need of troops for that purpose. India, keeping its long tradition and commitment to global peace and tranquility, took an important decision in 1995 to commit a Brigade Group to the UN Stand by Force arrangement so that peace Operations are not delayed due to lack of forces at UN command.
India's glorious contribution to UN peace-keeping operations in the 50 years since independence is a saga of dedication and commitment to the objectives of the UN Charter to which the nation is a signatory. This has been reflected not in terms of rhetoric and symbolism, but in physically demonstrated participation, even to the extent of sustaining casualities to personnel, and yet
staying the course. This contribution has been acknowledged by the members of the international community, successive Secretary Generals, the UN Secretariat and by fellow peace keepers from other countries of the world.